HI 233 Study Guide - Summer 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - World War I, Russian Empire, Imperialism

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12 Oct 2018
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HI 233
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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The World Before the Industrial Revolution
Empires
Were the political organization of the Asian world
Covered Russia, China, India, Persia, and Turkey
Trade routes
The world was connected through early trade routes
Islamic religion spread through these routes
Asia was the economic center → capital was moving mainly towards Asia
Western Europe was isolated and small, so they needed the goods empires Asia provided
Europe did not have much to offer countries like China and India and had to find
a way to trade
This leads to the “discovery” of America
Key idea: From the 1500’s and on, it was the first time the world was integrated and
connected (with the exception of areas like Australia)
European “Voyages of Discovery
Columbus thought he could find new trading routes by traveling west, but there was a
land mass
Found the Inca and Aztec empires living there
The New World became part of the economy in result of this discovery
Columbian Exchange
Became what Europe had to offer Asia
People travelled, goods travelled, and germs travelled
Cost of human lives was devastating in the New World
New World Silver
Chinese demanded silver and they nearly drained Japan from silver
Crucial that the New World offered silver to the Chinese
By the middle of the 17th century, the silver mines at Potosi, Bolivia had attracted a
population of 120,000
The Atlantic Economy
Sugar plantations off the coast of Africa were developed, and that continued in the New
World
Fed the Old World
Slaves produced sugar (and then spread to cotton)
The Triangular Trade involved the trade of slaves and goods like molasses
All these worked to benefit the European economy
The European State System c. 1714
In 1500, there were 500 different states and kingdoms in Europe
By 1800, there were only 30 of them
Due to constant warfare and competition for power
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The two greatest states were England and France due to wealth, banking, agricultural
populations, soldiers and bureaucracies
European War Goes Global
British and French both established colonies in the New World
The Seven Years War, 1753-63 was fought in Europe, North America, the Caribbean and
India
France loses most of its colonial possessions and England becomes the leading
colonial power
English rule over India begins (Battle of Plassey, 1757) and this was crucial
The Growth of British India
Crucial because the British could expand into Asia and could push for territorial gains
Competition led to this
Main bases at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay
Complete military conquests by 1850’s
Many Indian princes remain nominal rulers under the British
Relative Positions in the World 1500-1800
Population: Asia rises from ~60% in 1500 to 66% in 1750 and 67% in 1800 (bulk was in
India and China)
Evidence of success in developing resources in agriculture and trade
Economic production: Asia produces 80% of everything in the world in 1775 (probably
up from 1500)
Europe, Africa, Americas produce ~20% which indicates a problem for Europe
and Africa → they needed to change their dependence on Asia
Changes with the Industrial Revolution
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Document Summary

Were the political organization of the asian world. Covered russia, china, india, persia, and turkey. The world was connected through early trade routes. Asia was the economic center capital was moving mainly towards asia. Western europe was isolated and small, so they needed the goods empires asia provided. Europe did not have much to offer countries like china and india and had to find a way to trade. This leads to the discovery of america. Key idea: from the 1500"s and on, it was the first time the world was integrated and connected (with the exception of areas like australia) Columbus thought he could find new trading routes by traveling west, but there was a land mass. Found the inca and aztec empires living there. The new world became part of the economy in result of this discovery. Became what europe had to offer asia. People travelled, goods travelled, and germs travelled.

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