[BIOL 411] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 31 pages long Study Guide!

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6 Feb 2017
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University of New Hampshire
BIOL 411
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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2/5/16
The organic molecules of life-macromolecules- Linear polymers of subunits liked by
covalent bonds (polymer- large molecular chain of similar subunits)
o Nucleic acids- subunit: nucleotides, bond: phosphodiester
o Proteins- subunits: amino acids, bond: peptide
o Carbohydrates (often branched)- subunits: sugars, bonds: glycosidic
Polysaccharides
o Lipids (not polymers)
Proteins: linear (no branches) polymer of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
o Functions: structure, catalysis (most enzymes are proteins), receptors (on cell
surfaces, w/in cells), regulation (genetic and cellular functions in metabolism and
development)
o Alpha carbon surrounded by amino group and carboxylic acid (aka carboxyl
group), a hydrogen, and an R group (determines polarity, which determines
protein structure)- make up an amino acid
o Amino acid:
o
o Zwitter ion- has separate positive and negative charges, amino group accepts a
proton (+) and carboxyl group donates a proton (-)
o 20 different amino acids- all have different R groups
Some R groups are polar (but not polar enough to be charged) some are
nonpolar (hydrophobic)
C-H bond= nonpolar
N-H bond= polar
O-H bond= very polar
S-H bond=polar
Most polar R groups are polar because they have a hydroxyl group or
amino group
Some R groups have an acidic group, which will be negatively charged
Some R groups have an amino group, which will be positively charged
o When bonding two amino acids with a polypeptide bond, the bond is NCC (C-N-
C) ***no oxygen (in blue in the picture)
You lose a water- hydrogen group on the 1st amino acid and a hydrogen
on the second (in red in the picture)
Forming the bond: condensation reaction-lose H2O
Breaking the bond: hydrolysis reaction- add back the water
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One end has a free amino group (N-terminus) and the other end has a
free hydroxyl group (C-terminus)
Peptide bond forms from N-terminus to C-terminus
o *know how to look at an amino acid and tell if its polar or nonpolar (don’t
memorize, just know the bonds on the R group (shaded in
blue/tan/purple/green) that generally make the amino acid polar/nonpolar; OH,
NH, SH= generally polar, CH= generally nonpolar) *he said if asked on a test it
will be an obvious one
o
o *know how to draw 2 amino acids and put them together joined by a peptide
bond
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