[NURS 450] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (23 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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University of New Hampshire
NURS 450
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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NURS450 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Spring 2016
BASIC A&P, MENSTRUAL CYCLE, CONCEPTION
Know the basics of where they are and what they do:
o Vagina- passage connecting external genitalia to uterus, exit passage for
baby during birth and menstruation
o Cervix- opening to the uterus, located at bottom of uterus and top of
vagina
o Uterus- nourishes fetus during pregnancy, located between bladder and
rectum
o Fallopian tubes- mature egg comes here, fertilization occurs
o Ovaries- produce eggs for reproduction and releases hormones estrogen
and progesterone. Located in the pelvic cavity, below and to either side of
the navel
Gland document posted on CANVAS- know both male and female!
o Female:
Endometrium: lining of uterus, thickens in anticipation of fertilized
egg, if that doesn’t occur expelled during menstration
Bartholin’s glands: secrete mucus for lubrication (same as
Cowper’s glands in males)
Skene’s glands: implicated in orgasm and female ejaculation (same
as prostate gland in males)
o Male:
Penis: external reproductive sex organ
Testes: two organs located in scrotum, produce sperm and portion
of seminal fluid that carries sperm, produce testosterone
Vas deferens: stores sperm
Urethra: carries urine and sperm out of body
Prostate gland: sex gland, releases part of seminal fluid to carry
sperm. Removal: common urinary and sexual dysfunction
Cowper’s gland: releases small amounts of lubrication
Menstrual Cycle & Conception
o Sequence of events (MOFI) and time between events
Menstruation ovulation 12-16 days later, fertilization can
occur for up to 24 hours after ovulation implantation occurs 6
days later
o How long is egg available? Sperm?
Egg is available for 24 hours after ovulation, but sperm can wait in
reproductive tract for up to 5 days
o When does pregnancy occur scientifically?
At implantation
o Likelihood of pregnancy if not using contraception
85%
o Percentage of unplanned pregnancies in the US
49% of pregnancies are unplanned
CONTRACEPTION
Most common forms (don’t need to know exact numbers)
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NURS450 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 1 Spring 2016
o Pill, condoms, permanent sterilization
Most/least effective forms
o Most effective: Long acting reversible contraception (LARC- hormonal
implant, IUD), male/female sterilization
o Least effective: spermicides, fertility based awareness, condoms, sponge,
withdrawal
Temporary vs. permanent, perfect vs. typical use
o Temporary: pill, patch, LARC, condom, etc.
o Permanent: female/male sterilization
o Perfect use: always consistent and correct, doesn’t happen with methods
like pill, condom, etc., happens with LARCs-makes them more effective
o Typical use: not always consistent and correct, can result in unintended
pregnancies
Non-Hormonal Methods
o Barrier methods- which ones are they?
Male/female condoms, diaphragm, sponge, cervical cap
o Which is most effective against STIs?
Condoms
o What is “Natural Family Planning”?
A behavioral method of contraception that utilizes fertility based
awareness- people refrain from have sex during/near ovulation
o Types of Sterilization- Vasectomy, tubal ligation, Essure
Vasectomy: cutting vas deferens to permanently prevent sperm
from entering ejaculatory fluid
Tubal ligation: cutting fallopian tubes to permanently prevent
passage of sperm to the egg
Essure: coils inserted into fallopian tubes to promote tissue
growth/scaring and blockage
Hormonal Methods
o Pill, Patch, Ring, Depo-injection
What hormones? How does it work?
Progestin (synthetic progesterone) and estrogen are
combined. Progesterone is released when a woman is
pregnant, so the pill tricks the body into thinking its already
pregnant so ovulation doesn’t occur. Together, estrogen
and progestin thicken cervical mucus and thin uterine
lining). Estrogen also helps to mitigate side effects of
progestin
Patch: hormone derived through skin, 3 weeks on one week
off, more estrogengreater risk for blood clots and
headaches
Ring: inserted into vagina, 3 weeks on one week off. Can
cause irritation, increased discharge, and is detectable by
partner
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