[CHEM 110] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (17 pages long)

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NIU
CHEM 110
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1 LearnSmart due Thursday @9PM
Chapter 1 Connect due Friday @Midnight
Units of Measurement
Units
The basic quantity of mass, volume, or whatever quantity is being measured
A measurement is useless without its units
English / Imperial System
A collection of functionally unrelated units
Difficult to convert from one unit to another
Ie. 1ft = 12 inches = 0.33 yards = 1/5280 miles
Metric System
Composed of a set of units that are related to each other decimally, systematic
Units related by powers of tens
Units
Time - metric unit is seconds
Mass - the quantity of matter in an object
Not synonymous with weight
Standard unit is the gram (g)
The pound (lb) is the common English unit
1lb = 454g
MUST be measured on a balance (not a scale)
Balance = removes gravity from equation
Scale = relies on gravity
Mass =/= Weight
Mass: the quantity of matter in an object
Weight: the force of gravity on an object
Equation: mass x acceleration
Length
The distance between two points
Standard unit is the meter (m)
The yard is the common English unit
1yd - 0.91m
Volume
The space occupied by an object
Standard unit is the liter (L)
The quart is the common English unit
1qt = 0.946L
Prefixes
Basic units are the units of a quantity without any metric prefix
Milli = -1000
Kilo = 1000
1000g = 1kg
1g = 1000mg
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10^3L = 1kL
1L = 10^3 mL
The Numbers of Measurement
Information-bearing digits or figures in a number are significant figures
The measuring device used determines the number of significant figures in a
measurement
The degree of uncertainty associated with a measurement is indicated by the
number of figures used to represent the information
Recognition of Significant Figures
All nonzero digits are significant
7.314 has four significant digits
The number of significant digits is independent of the position of the
decimal point
73.14 also has four sigfigs
Zeros located between nonzero digits are significant
60.052 has five sigfigs
Use of Zeros in sigfigs
Zeros at the end of a number (trailing zeros) are significant if the number
containers a decimal point
4.70 has three sigfigs
Trailing zeros are insignificant if the number does NOT contain a decimal
point
100 has one significant digit; 100. Has three
Zeros to the left of the first nonzero integer are not significant
0.0032 has two sigfigs
How many sigfigs in the follow
3.400 - 4
3004 - 4
300. - 3
0.003040 - 4
Scientific Notation
Used to express very large or very small numbers easily and with the correct
number of significant figures, represents a number as a power of ten
Example
4300 = 4.3 x 1000 = 4.3 x 10^3
Another Example
4300.
Move to satisfy factor of 10
Move left 3 places
4.3 < 10
10^3 because we moved the decimal 3 places
4.3 x 10^3
If moved to the left, then the power will be a negative
Uncertainty
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