Biology Test 4 Review

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BIOL 1113
Mary- Susan Potts- Santone

Henry Hsu TEST #4/FINAL PHYLUMANNELIDA (protostome- first opening is the mouth) (eucoelomate - a “true” coelomate) ● metamerism - segmentation ○ Septa - segmented partitions that divide the internal, fluid filled coelom (Hydrostatic Skeleton) ○ Annuli ○ nephridia in most segments - excretion ○ setae on most segments ○ branched blood vessels in each segment ○ ADVANTAGES ■ lost body segment => other segments can take over functions ■ flexibility and locomotion (peristalsis -> wavelike movements) ● specialized digestive tract ● Closed circulatory system ● ventral solid nerve cord ● most are marine ● Setae/Chetae(chitin)- bristles that help the organism move 1. POLYCHAETES ● Sedentary (confined within burrows) and errant polychaetes (actively mobile) ● have prostomium, peristomium, parapodia, and many setae ○ Parapodia - paired fleshy appendages (for locomotion and respiration) Jaw Parts ○ Prostomium - region above the mouth [ex.)eyes] ○ Peristomium - region around the mouth (contains mouth) ● trochophore larva ● Atoke - the anterior sexless part of certain polychaete worms ● Epitoke: modified reproductive segment of worm (posterior), “swarming” is simultaneous release of all eggs and sperm ● Pogonophora (Siboglinids) ○ habitat: near hydrothermal vents ○ SYMBIOTIC relationship with chemosynthetic bacteria - uses organism waste to produce organic material (food) ■ Trophosome: organ filled with chemosynthetic bacteria, feeds worms -> worms dependent upon bacteria for food ● Oligochaetes ○ no well-developed head or parapodia ○ Has dorsal blood vessel ○ setae protrude in pairs from surface of body ○ food drawn into mouth by muscular pharynx ○ Clittellum - secretes mucus to protect sperm from dessication (cocoon) ■ cross fertilization (hermaphroditic) ○ Typhlosole - absorption in digestion ○ Crop: expanded region for storage ○ Gizzard: area for grinding, stones of calcium carbonate ● Hirudinea - Leeches ○ No setae, no head ○ 2 suckers for attachment (anterior and posterior) ■ “temporary parasites” – don’t maintain consistent relationship with body of host ■ not all feed on blood ○ Have a three-plated bite (triradiate pharynx) ■ Jaws built out of series of chitinous plates ○ Hirudin: powerful anticoagulant, prevents the blood from clotting (keeps blood flowing from body of prey into leech) ○ Digestion incredibly slow -> GI tract does not produce any enzymes, symbiotic bacteria responsible for digestion ○ Medical uses: surgery, remove clotted blood Phylum Arthropoda GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS: (protostome development- first opening is the mouth) (Eucoelomate- true body cavity, triploblastic (3 germ layers)) (metamerism- segmented body of repeating units) (tagmata- grouping of specialized segments) -Ex: head/cephalothorax,thorax, abdomen (exoskeleton made of chitin- varying thickness between classes) (have jointed appendages) (hemocoel- series of spaces between organs allowing blood circulation) -aka: open circulation (tracheae-land inhabitants only- diffusion of O2) (spiracles-surface openings on land organisms allowing gas exchange “through” exoskeleton) (digestion:) terrestrial: malpighian tubules marine/aquatic: green glands ● Head: feeding and sensory appendage ● Setae: sensory hairs, provide information about surrounding environment ● Thorax: designed for locomotion (i.e. jointed legs and wings) ● Abdomen: bulk of internal organs ● Ecdysis: molting, the periodic shedding of old cuticle and formation of new cuticle ○ Premolt Stage: animal breaks down old cuticle and at the same time epidermis is beginning to produce new cuticle, new cuticle is highly folded (two cuticles at the same time) -> old cuticle gets thinner, new one is being produced ○ Molting: old cuticle ruptures and animal moves out of old cuticle and is now covered by new, softer cuticle (new cuticle stretches out) ○ Post Molt: cuticle solidifies (strengthens) and exhibits normal characteristics ■ Tanning – proteins cross-linked together (skeleton hardens) ○ Controlled by hormones: ■ Y-organ – produces ecdysone (molting hormone) which triggers events of molting ■ X-Organ – produces molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) which shuts off events of molting ● Gastric Mill: grinding set of plates ● Metamorphosis - variety of stages in life history SUBPHYLUM CHELICERATA ● ex: spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, HORSESHOE CRAB ● HS Crab: telson only line of defense, blood clots in presence of bacterial endotoxins ○ LAL(Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate): horseshoe crab blood clots in presence of bacterial endotoxins -> blood cells taken from blood and frozen (called LAL) and then used in tests to ensure medical equipment is sterile and clean ● chelicera - pincer-like feeding appendages, modified into venom-producing structures in spiders ● pedipalps - anterior shortened pair of appendages- “feelers” ● walking legs - periopods, attached to thorax ● carapace - section of exoskeleton covering ventral portion of cephalothorax ○ crustaceans+arachnids ● telson - rearmost “segment” of body ○ ex: middle lobe of lobster tail, scorpion stinger ● book gills - aquatic respiration, look like pages of book ● hemocyanin - O2 transport proteins ○ invertebrate version of hemoglobin CLASSARACHNIDA -poison glands: -black widow- neurotoxin: paralyzes nervous system -brown recluse- hemorrhagic toxin: destroys capillaries+blood cell -fangs- attached to head, used for feeding/defense -> inject poison -silk glands- located posteriorly, produce web used for passive predation SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA ● Hard, calcified shell ○ ex: barnacles, water fleas, copepods, lobster, crab, crayfish ● Appendages are biramous (2-part, branched appendage attached to body surface) ● Sensory appendages: antennae and eyes ● Swimmerets: first pair modified for reproduction (claspers), help with tail flipping (animal will scoot in opposite direction of tail flip -> backwards) ● Neurogenic heart: beating of heart controlled by nervous system ○ Holes (ostia) in heart which allow fluid from open circulation to flow back into heart ● Copepods: food for other organism (enormous food source) ● Metamorphosis reduces competition (leads to juveniles and adults being successful due to different food sources) ● ecdysis - molting ● antennae- located anteriorly, used for sensing environment ● mandibles: mouthparts used for biting, cutting, holding food (attached exteriorly) ● maxillae- fusion of two plates forming upper jaw ● molting: see above SUBPHYLUM HEXAPODA CLASS INSECTA ■ 3 pairs of legs (6 total) ■ wings allow flight (1 or 2 pairs) ■ use tracheal system for respiration ■ undergo metamorphosis - dramatic change in body form ● egg -> larvae -> pupae -> adult ■ instar- successive stages between molts of increasing sexual maturity ■ holometabolous - complete metamorphosis, offspring do not compete with adults for resources ● Larval stage is worm-like, entirely terrestrial, herbivore ● Pupa stage is stage in which body encased by cocoon (pupa) ○ Extremely active stage of differentiation -> animal is experiencing a breakdown of larval structures and breakthrough of adult structures ○ Adult structures produced through imaginal discs ○ wings develop from internal structures (imaginal discs) ● Reproductively capable adult emerges from pupa stage ■ hemimetabolous - incomplete metamorphosis ● egg -> nymph (wingless version of adult) -> adult ■ ametabolous - no metamorphosis ● Insects change very little in body form as they develop -> just grow larger over time ● What hatches from egg are “mini” adults ***FROM HERE DOWN, ORGANISMS ARE DEUTEROSTOMES*** (mouth forms from second cavity) Phylum Echinodermata ● Deuterostomes - first opening is anus (instead of mouth) ● Radial, indeterminate cleavage (embryo can still develop if cell is taken out) ● radial symmetry ○ Pentamerous symmetry ○ trochophore larva - bilateral symmetry ■ undergo Metamorphosis - become pentamerous ● Endoskeleton (ossicles/spines - internal calcium rich plates) ○ Pedicellariae - Minute pincers (protect and clean animal[algae free]) ○ Dermal Branchiae - respiration ● exclusively marine ● no cephalization ● Extensive coelom (Water Vascular System) ● Madreporite: calcium-rich plate, entrance to water vascular system ● Water Vascular System 1. Madreporite - entrance 2. Stone Canal - pressure regulator 3. Ring Canal - runs around mouth a. Polian vesicles – regulate fluid within water vascular system (fluid storage) 4. Radial Canals (5) - deliver fluid into arms 5. Lateral Canals - have valves at ends that allow fluid to flow into ampullae 6. Ampullae 7. Tube Feet (Ambulacral Groove - houses tube feet) - external parts, allow for locomotion and help in feeding ● 2-part stomach: ○ Cardiac stomach: stomach that can be inverted out of mouth (comes out of mouth to grab food and then retracts into body) ○ Food moves from cardiac stomach into pyloric stomach, then into pyloric caeca (delivers nutrients to cells) ● Cardiac Stomach - attached to the mouth and comes out of the mouth to ditnutrients ● Pyloric (gastric) Caeca - digestive glands; deliver nutrients ● regeneration (Autonomy - can drop arms at will) ● Hemosystem: system present in echinoderms without known function, no direct connection to water vascular system ● Autonomy: ability to drop an arm at will (mutable connective tissue can change from being soft and pliable to hard in seconds as a means of protection) Phylum Chordata ● 4 Characteristics (occurs some point in all chordates) 1. Notochord - provides support & axis for muscles 2. Nerve Cord - dorsal, hollow; anterior end enlarges to form brain 3. Pharyngeal Pouches (Gill slits) 4. Post-anal Tail - evolved for water propulsion ● Other characteristics ● muscles ● ventral heart ● endoskeleton ● segmentation ● Tetrapods - 4 limbs, air less buoyant than land ● Cephalochordates [Lancelets (5-7 cm) - organism] ○ marine (fish-like chordates) ○ 4 chordate characteristics as Adults ● Urochordates [tunicates] ○ tunic for defense ○ sessile ○ filter feeder - siphons ○ Adult ■ pharyngeal gill slits ○ Tadpole Larvae ■ 4 chordate characteristics ○ VertebrateAncestor - explanation ■ Paedomorphosis - larvae characteristics get retained in adult form (evolution) ● precocious puberty ● slow body growth, but normal reproductive growth ○ Endostyle - responsible for control of metabolism ● Craniates ○ 2 defining characteristics 1. Cranium - nerve cord forms brain (bony/cartilaginous housing) 2. Neural Crest - group of embryonic cells on each side of neural tubes; contributes to skeletal development, nerves, jaws and teeth ○ 2 clusters of Hox genes ■ gene duplication (body part formation) ■ body pattern and development ■ vertebrates have 4 clusters ○ Not all craniates are vertebrates, but all vertebrates are craniates ■ b/c craniates lack a vertebral column ○ Hagfishes “slime eels” ■ marine, jawless, finless ■ lack vertebrae ■ have skull and cartilage notochord ■ scavengers, blind, keen smell & touch ■ cylindrical body, no fins, and smooth non-scaly skin, copious slime ■ can be used for leather ● Vertebrates ○ have chordate characteristics ○ integument: epidermis and dermis ○ endoskeleton - limb girdles (calcified [mineral]) ■ muscles ○ complete GI tract ○ ventral heart; closed circulation ○ well-developed coelom (eucoelomate) ○ paired kidneys ○ brain and cranial nerves ○ Body plan: head trunk, post anal tail ○ 4 clusters of Hox Genes ○ All 4 animal tissue types present ■ muscle, nervous, connective, epithelial ○ Enucleated blood cells (no nucleus) allow for more space to carry oxygen 1. Fishes (largest most diverse vertebrates) ● aquatic, gill-breathing, ectothermic vertebrates that usually have fins and skin covered with scales ● Ostracoderms - small, jawless, finless fish; earliest vertebrate fossils, filter-feeders - PARAPHYLETIC ● Agnathans - Jawless fishes (Lampreys) ○ no vertebrae (cartilaginous skeleton) ○ decimated trout populations in Great Lakes - suck body fluids (parasitic) ○ cylindrical body, no fins, and smooth non-scaly skin ○ Ammocoete - larva of lamprey (4 characteristics of vertebrates) ● Gnathostomes - Vertebrates with Jaws ○ jaw evolved from gills (arches) ○ Placoderms - early jawed, armored fishes w/ paired fins CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES - cartilagenous fishes ex: sharks (shark finning), skates, rays -fast open sea predators -skeleton made of cartilage- lighter, more flexible than bone -5-7 gill slits on each side of head -ovoviviparous- lay eggs, mature inside cavity, exit mother alive -no operculum (=bony flap covering+protecting gills) -body covered by placoid (toothlike) scales
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