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[BIOL 1119] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (51 pages long!)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 1119
Professor
Christopher Richardson
Study Guide
Midterm

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NU
BIOL 1119
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Anatomy and Physiology 2
Class 1
Form and Function = critical aspects to understand anatomy and physiology
Ex: heart valve: regulate blood flow
Cusps for form, promote interlocking 2 or 3 cusps in a valve
interact to prevent back flow
Emergent properties = interacting components
Interaction w/ physiological systems affect form and function
Circulatory System
Circulatory system: heart, blood vessels, and blood (loose connective tissue)
Features:
- Transport: nutrients, gases, metabolic wastes, hormones
- Protection: against infection (immune system), clotting
- Regulation: pH, water balance, temp
Cardiovascular system: heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries (exchange)
Two divisions:
(1) Pulmonary circuit: right side of the heart (right ventricle)
Supplies blood to lungs for gas exchange
(2) Systemic circuit: left side of the heart (left ventricle)
Supplies blood to all organs of the body
Blood flow separate on right and left sides = more efficient (mammals &
birds)
Position of heart: located in mediastinum, between lungs
Base = broad superior portion of heart
Apex = inferior end
Size of heart: large grapefruit
Position of heart: protected by sternum, right about diaphragm (indirectly
connected), not balanced -more on left side of thoracic cavity
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Pericardium
Parietal Pericardium: sac like, small cavity, 2 main layers (like a deflated water
balloon w/ some water still in, wrapped around a ball), heart not actually in
cavity cavity wrapped around heart
(1) Outer, tough, fibrous layer of connective tissue
(2) Inner, thin, smooth, moist serous membrane layer found in parietal
layers that line inside of body cavities: produce lubricating fluid
Pericardial Cavity: filled with pericardial fluid
Visceral Pericardium(epicardium of heart wall): inner, thin, smooth, moist
serous membrane layer, covers heart surface
Serous membrane in visceral layer covers organs
Pericardium anchored to diaphragm and sternum
Allows heart to beat w/o friction, can expand but resist excessive expansion
Heart Wall
Epicardium(visceral pericardium): serous membrane = simple squamous
epithelium: over outer layer of areolar tissue contains blood vessels: provides
nutrients and removes waste
Myocardium(middle layer): thick muscular layer, made of cardiac muscle
spirals around heart. Thickness proportional to work performed by chamber
left side thickest: does most work
Fibrous skeleton: network of collagenous and elastic fibers in myocardium
- Provides structural support and attachment for cardiac muscle
- Electrical nonconductor, important in coordinating contractile
activity
- Provide electrical insulation between atria and ventricles
prevents atria from directly stimulating ventricles critical for
proper timing of contractions, prevents premature firing of
ventricles
Endocardium: smooth inner lining, lines interior heart chambers
- Endocardium (no adipose) overlies thin layer of areolar tissue
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