notes france.docx

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Business Administration
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BUSN 1101
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Sandy Blank

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Women's   preference   is   that   men   have   a   higher   education,  occupation, and income as them Catholic culture of France has  reinforced the idea of "femme au foyer" Women functions as  secondary role "who differs from the traditional role" Women  usually work as part­time mothers, men only work part­time when  it is virtually impossible to find a full­time position In 2007, men  assumed 35% of all domestic work Highly selective: more than  half do not cook, wash, or prepare meals, especially their own  Prefer outside tasks (non­household), household purchases, and  transporting of children Men have on average 5 hours of free time  compared to women, not including sleep, washing, and eating As  'breadwinners' men were thought to be unable to devote themselves  to domestic life for lack of time Child care by men remains  independent of the number of children Why France's gender code  makes  life  hard  for   women  "French  feminism  is  a  kind  of  American construction...In civil society, there is a hugely anti­ feminist mentality"­ Elsa Dorlin French women meant to not be  vulgar, drink too much, or smoke in the street "I would never help  myself to wine...At the end of an evening, I might shake my glass  at my husband. But no, I would never touch the bottle"­ Thomasine  Jammot Action Relooking is a new initiative in which a "handful  of lucky unemployed French women are given a government  makeover, in order to look pretty for a job interview" (Williams  2011) "Your appearance will change everything, even for an  interview at a job. In France you employ anyone you like. If the  interviewer things that you're too fat or ugly: dommage for you!" ­  Berengere Fievet In 2004 there was a ban on veils "in the end it's  pretty sexist to have your dress code determined by the sexual  paranoia of your menfolk" Girls were denied an education if they  continued to wear the veil "French couples show with words rather  than with their bodies and gestures that they are a couple"  (Delaney)   "We   can   contradict   each   other,   we   have   'violent'  discussions   or   take   opposing   sides   on   an   issue.   We   can  'intervene...we can become exasperated with each other...and even  get angry without worrying our friends in the least" (Carroll 1988)  Relationships   The   stability   of   the   couple   is   created   by   the  possibility (the freedom to be oneself Affective  ties are not  synonymous with harmony "A couples relationship is considered  to be a relationship of equality or, rather, of equilibrium in its  complementarity"   (Carroll   1988).   Except   for   the   sex,   the  relationship resembles that of siblings Dating Gender Differences  in   the   Transition   to   Adulthood   "According   to   New   Home  Economics, the higher the educational levels of women and the  better their career prospects, the more they will try to postpone or  even   avoid   marriage   and   motherhood"   (Winkler­Dworak   &  Toulemon 2007). Education levels have risen for both sexes,  especially women Mean age of marriage rose from ahout 22 years  old in 1970 to about age 28 in 2000 (Winkler­Dworak & Toulemon  2007) Cohabitation without marriage is becoming popular less sex­ differentiated   roles   than   traditional   marriages   Finishing   an  education is one of the markers of transition into adulthood; as is  employment Unemployment does not hamper union formation for  women Employment is crucial for a man's ability to form a union  Easier to join a union (for a male) if father had a white collar job In  2002, the labor force participation rate of women aged 25 to 34  was as high as 79 percent (Winkler­Dworak & Toulemon 2007)  Once in a union, women not working have a higher chance of  getting pregnant than women who work France National identity  based on the historical origins of the nation in Celtic, Gallo­ Roman, and Frankish features (Reed­Danahay 2013 Population is  divided by  social class, political party affiliation, generation,  ethnicity and region In 1999, the population was 58,518,748 Low  density population as compared to the rest of Western European  countries In attempt to keep the population up family allowances  are given to each family per child Linguistic unity was achieved  less than a century ago Some regions have their own languages and  dialects as well "France" originally was used to refer to several  peoples in the lower Rhineland Brief History of Gender "Peasant  households traditionally had a strict gender division of labor that  was incorporated into a community of life, with the family farm  being both a kinship and economic unit" (Reed­Danahay 2013).  Napoleonic Code of 1803 denied power to women in marriage  Women did not gain the right to vote until 1944 Women could not  set up their own bank account until the 1960s Today almost half of  all workers are women Women still face inequalities such as lower  wages than men for comparable work and more difficult career  paths Payment for the weddings of young people are usually  divided quickly between the families of the bride and the groom  Recent law allows legal unions that are not marriages Easier to  dissolve than marriages Includes heterosexual and homosexual  couples Fin http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/mar/25/new-europe-france- women-gender-code standard structural markers of inequality are all in place: the figure proffered for a pay gap is a modest 12%, but this is what is known as "pure discrimination", the difference in wages between a man and a woman in exactly the same job, with the same qualifications …. Thomasine Jammot, a cross-cultural trainer (who teaches travelling business people how they might overcome cultural misinterpretation, on their own or someone else's part) says that she does not feel discriminated against, nor objectified. "There is a permanent ode to women in France," she explains. "We are loved very well." But then she continues: "There are many things you can't do, as a woman, in France. You can't be coarse or vulgar, or drink too much, or smoke in the street. I would never help myself to wine." "How would you get more wine?" I ask, baffled. "At the end of an evening, I might shake my glass at my husband. But no, I would never touch the bottle." …. Berengére Fiévet, 35, is a single mother and student in psychology, as well as a part-time teacher. "Nothing has changed much in the past 20 years. For men, women are just women: sex objects. Your appearance will change everything, even for an interview for a job. In France you employ anyone you like. If the interviewer thinks that you're too fat or ugly: dommage for you!" This is underlined by a bizarre new initiative, Action Relooking, in which a handful of lucky unemployed French women are given a government makeover, in order to look pretty for a job interview. "Women feel the pressure to maintain their 'physique' more in France than anywhere else in Europe," says Nicole Fiévet, 63, a senior council official. "The pressure comes from society itself, not only from men but women. I am still a bad example to talk about it. I spend my life to look after my garden more than me. As a result, I never found a husband." = conservatism and rigidity http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=8446 MASCULINITY/FEMININITY This dimension represents the "dominant gender role pattern related to behaviors and values" (Hofstede 1991, and 1998). It expresses the extent to which the dominant values in a society are masculine or feminine. Masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (i.e. men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success, whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life). Societies with high masculinity tend to admire qualities such as ambitiousness, achievement, and assertiveness, with an understanding that performance is the means to gain wealth and admiration (Hofstede 1991). In these societies, one might expect individuals to strive aggressively to advance their careers, both by performing well and by gaining recognition from their superiors. Female societies value nurturance, quality of life, service, and interdependence (Hofstede 1998). These societies are associated with patience. Motivation comes from a desire to serve and work is viewed as a necessity for living rather than the focus of life (Hofstede 1991). In feminine countries like Chile, Portugal, and Thailand, since decision-making is participative and compromises the watchword for maintaining friendly working conditions, it is suggested that they are more prone to relationship formation. Thus, we propose: P12: Consumers belonging to feminine societies are more likely than consumers belonging to masculine societies to engage in reltional market behavior with firms, products, or brands. http://www.ijbssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_21_November_2012/26.pdf However, research shows us that even in the same styles of customers, differences abound that make marketing to men and women another factor to consider. These differences require that the company define their target market as men, women or both. They must define the market in order to better understand how to communicate effectively with them. The companies need to focus on how the markets differ between men and women. One difference in preferred communication styles is that women who prefer verbal communication are much more responsive to more polite and softer language than men. Men prefer short, direct verbal communication (Heermann, 2010). “According to a study conducted at the University of Wisconsin,
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