quiz 3.docx

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Health Science
Course Code
HSCI 1105
Sandy Blank

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WATER SOLUBLE • Water-soluble vitamins: B vitamins and vitamin C • Thiamine (vitamin B 1 ▯ Coenzyme=thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) – Thiamine deficiency = Beriberi • Muscle weakness and nerve degeneration • Most often seen with alcoholism • Rare because of enrichment of refined grains – No known toxicity • Riboflavin (vitamin B2) – Coenzyme in energy metabolism (FAD) – A light sensitive vitamin in milk – Deficiency = ariboflavonosis • Inflammation of the mouth and tongue • Niacin (vitamin B3) – Coenzyme in energy metabolism (NAD) – Deficiency = pellagra • Ds: Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death – High doses used to treat high blood cholesterol levels • Vitamin B 6 – Active coenzyme form = pyridoxine • Vitamin B 12 – Needs intrinsic factor and HCl for absorption – Found only in animal foods – Vegans need dietary supplements – Required for cell division – Deficiency = Pernicious anemia • Megaloblastic anemia + nerve damage • Folate – Required for cell division – Deficiency in women of childbearing age • Neural yube defects – Deficiency in adults associated with heart disease and cancers • Vitamic C (ascorbic acid) – Collagen synthesis – Deficiency = scurvy – Toxicity is rare FATSOLUBLE  Vitamins are organic substances needed in small amounts  Fat-soluble vitamins  ADEK  Absorbed along with fat VitaminA  Precursor = beta-carotenoids in yellow/orange/red and green vegetables and fruits  Deficiency  Night blindness (reversible)  Early symptom of deficiency  Xerophthalmia (permanent blindness)  Toxicity if consumed in greater amount (5x DRI) Vitamin D  Functions like a hormone  Precursor produced from cholesterol when UV light hits the skin  Active form = Calcitriol  Found mainly in fortified foods  Regulates calcium levels  Deficiency = soft bones  Rickets = children  Osteomalacia/osteoprosis = adults  Toxicity results in elevated blood calcium levels Vitamin E  Alpha-tocopherol = active form  Important antioxidant  Found in vegetable oils  Deficiency/toxicity relatively rare Vitamin K  Produce in the intestine by bacteria  Primarily obtained from the diet  Green leafy vegetables  Required for blood clotting (coagulation)  Deficiency is rare  Newborns suscept
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