Final Exam Study Sheet
1. explain the different economic theories developed byAdam Smith and Marx:
1. What is democracy? Is Democracy the antidote for the world’s evils, or is it a form
of Western political and cultural dominance? Does the spread of democracy make
the world safer for everyone?
1. the election of people to represent, free elections
2. by the people by the people
3. exercised directly or indirectly through a system of representation
1. human rights aspect
2. what is find in the bill of rights
b. Neither and both… Democracy when grown from within and from the bottom up
through policies that foster equality is the best form of government and will lead
to peace; however when it is forced upon countries, (especially through military
action) it is Western political and cultural dominance and will just lead to more
violence and problems. The spreading of norms that develop democracy will
make the world safer but the imposition by force of democracy will not.
c. Related topics:
i. Japan: accepted democracy
ii. Iraq: failed state because the US imposed it upon them
iii. Hobsbawm: effort of spreading democracy is also dangerous in a more
2. What are the criteria for measuring democracy? Why doesn’t liberal
a. According to Rami Khouri, legitimacy (Is it based on the domestic consent of the
people? Does it follow international law?) and freedom of expression.
b. Liberal interventionism is the idea that the “best defense is a good offense” and it
is aggressive, preventive military action, striking down enemies before they are
capable of hurting us. However, containment is not possible when you don’t know
who your enemies are; the world order cannot exist if half of the world is unfree.
Democracy has to be grown into and from the bottom up.An example of how liberal interventionism doesn’t work is Iraq. Iraq is now a failed state, meaning it
can’t provide services for its people, because of US liberal interventionism.
c. Hobsbawm: legitimate consent of the governed, the ability to mediate conflicts
between domestic groups
3. Describe Kant’s notion of “cosmopolitanism.”
a. It is based on categorical imperative (morality must be impartial and evolve
equality; people are ends in themselves; should expect and demand freedom but
have responsibilities towards others; violation of rights should be felt as a
i. Republics will be more peaceful than non-republics
ii. Rational people won’t vote for those that will lead them to destruction
iii. Requires that you extend hospitality to strangers
iv. First international organization to follow the Cosmo model = European
b. Internationalization of democracy
c. given up some powers for the better good
d. democracy = peace
i. extend hospitality to everyone
ii. believe that you are a global citizen
4. What are the different forms of trafficking? Why has trafficking become such a
prevalent issue in the world today?
a. Human (TIP):
1. Forced prostitution
a. Turkey prostitution clip
i. Girl from Moldova taken to Turkey
ii. Moldova has huge prostitution rate because they
2. Forced pregnancy
4. Labor (domestic labor)
a. Qatar is accused of modern slave labor during the building
the olympics facilities 2020
5. Organ delivery
d. Indian Slums
ii. AWorld Enslaved E. BENJAMIN SKINNER
1. buying a girl from Haiti
iii. Est. 27 million in world today
iv. UN 2000- Palermo Protocol
1. Principle: Slavery is wrong
2. Emerging norm: States need to make sure it’s not happening
v. Trafficking in persons: recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, receipt of persons
1. Tier 1 - Countries that fully comply with TVPA(Trafficking
victims protection association)
2. Tier 2 - Countries that aren’t fully there but trying
3. Tier 2 watch list - on the cusp that are trying but falling short
(failure to provide evidence that they’re trying)
4. Tier 3 - Countries that don’t try at all
vii.Supply chain slavery; three components
i. Arms and the man Peter Landesman
1. Viktor Bout: largest arm trafficker in the world
ii. Why a globalized arms trade needs global controls?
1. Uncontrolled global operation
2. Exports lead to Human Rights violations
3. Many more supplies and buyers
4. Annual value: 51 billion arms transactors and 315 bil for all
military goods and services
5. Corrupt and secretive
iii. Conflicts and weapons: underlying common patterns
1. Uncontrolled spread of arms
2. Ease of access
3. Difficulty of delivering humanitarian aid
4. Non-observance of international humanitarian law
5. Links to other goods (diamonds/drugs)
i. relate trafficking to globalization
ii. transformed into organized crime (business model)
iii. use corporations as a screen to clean money
5. What efforts have been made by the international community to stem the tide of
human trafficking? Why is compliance difficult?
a. The UN Palermo Protocol has been passed to combat human trafficking.
Compliance is difficult because it requires action from every country, cannot be
enforced, and some states see it as an imposition on their sovereignty.
6. According to Benjamin Barber in “Jihad v. McWorld,” what two forces are at work
in the world today? Why does he think both are fundamentally undemocratic?
a. McWorld, or the Globalization of Politics
i. Four imperatives make it up - have taken over nationalism
1. The Market Imperative
a. all national economies are vulnerable to inroads of larger,
transnational markets with free trades (opposite of Marx and Lenin theory)
b. Reinforced quest for international peace and stability,
requisites of an efficient international economy
c. Common markets demand a common language and
d. Not identical with democratic imperative
2. The Resource Imperative
a. Human nature is dependency
b. People always try autarky but no
c. Every nation needs something from other nations
3. The Information-Technology Imperative
a. enlightenment science and resulting technologies are
b. Scientific progress depends on open communication
c. Business, banking, and commerce all depend on info flow
d. Whole world speaks logarithms and binary math
e. Pursuit of science compels open structures
f. Not rly democratic doe
4. The Ecological Imperative
a. Developed countries don’t let developing countries destroy
environments like they were able to sry!!!!!
ii. They’re all transnatural, transideological, and transcultural
b. Jihad, or the Lebanonization of the World
i. World’s real actors - national states and subnational factions in permanent
rebellion against uniformity and integration
1. people without countries seeking smaller worlds (like Palestine)
2. tons of small-scale wars
3. war as an emblem of identity, expression of community, tend in
ii. Breakdown of civility in the name of identity
iii. religion = battlefield
iv. Passing of communism unveiled ethnic prejudices
c. Both still don’t relate to democracy; neither need nor promote democracy. They
both focus more on antipolitics:
i. McWorld is the antipolitics of globalism; bureaucratic, technocratic, and
meritocratic. to capitalist (make rich more rich, poor more poor)
ii. Jihad is the antipolitics of tribalization which is explicitly antidemocratic:
one-party dictatorship, government by military junta, theocratic
fundamentalism. to traditional
iii. both are not equal
7. What is “ethnicity”? How was ethnicity often subsumed within nationalist
movements? What is the relationship between ethnicity, religion and nationalism?
(hint: review Barber)
a. Ethnicity: a group of people sharing a common ancestry. Nationalism is a
conviction that ethnic boundaries coincide with political and administrative
boundaries. This creates a national identity. Ethnicity was subsumed within nationalist movements because in countries like the US which is a melting pot of
different peoples, they were still brought together by the fact that they shared the
same nationality. However, in countries like Japan, the people share both a
common ethnicity, religion and nationality.
8. How did the UN define genocide in 1948? Be sure to know the 5 components of the
definition. (This can be found on the UN website)
a. In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed
with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious
group, as such:
i. Killing members of the group;
ii. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
iii. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring
about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
iv. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
v. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
9. What are some of the possible cthses of gstocide? What are the different genocides
that have occurred in the 20 and 21 centuries? Be sure that you can describe at
least one example.
a. Possible causes include nationalism, war, economic trouble, times of hardship in
general in which a minority population can be used as a scapegoat, a new group
that had been previously disenfranchised coming into power.
b. Racism, religious, political affiliations, conflict over limited resources.
c. Targetting a population for elimination, revenge, fear (esp.Armenia), the very
existence on earth of an enemy community is considered offensive (esp.
d. (2oth Century) The Jewish Holocaust in Germany, the Cambodian Genocide, the
Armenian Genocide, The Rwandan Genocide.
10. TheArmenian genocide is still widely debated in Turkey. Why do you think this is?
Where did the word “genocide” originate, and why is it such a powerful label?
What obligations does the label of “genocide” create for the international
a. They are probably denying it still because once it is recognized, they will have to
pay retributions to theArmenian families in Turkey and it will decrease national
pride within the country.
b. “Genocide” originated in 1944 from Raphael Lemkin combining the Greek word
“geno” for race or tribe and the Latin word “cide” for killing. It is a powerful
label because it suggests that a group of humans is seeking to completely wipe out
another group, which heavily violates human rights and equality. He wanted a
term to connect what happened with theArmenians with what happened in the
c. World leaders don’t use the word “genocide” because it means others states are
obliged to get involved with ending it.
11. When thinking about population control, what is the difference between approaches
derived from Condorcet or Malthus? What are the implications of these different
approaches? What link does Amartya Sen make between authoritarian and cooperative systems and population growth?
a. Poverty & Fertility:
i. Poorer people have children because they view them as a type of security.
For example, they can help them with work in the fields. More hands to
work. This is wrong, but because they aren’t in the workforce, they don’t
understand the true financial cost of having children.
ii. Provide education and labor opportunities, especially to women
iii. Reproduction is a choice, and the best way to decrease fertility is to
improve people’s lives.
b. Condorcet: endless progress is possible
i. Continual improvement of humankind and the gradual perfection of the
ii. As we perfect sciences, especial medically, we will increase life spans
iii. As our knowledge of medicine increases, we could live to infinity
iv. If people grow faster than the earth can support, we’ll have to make
choices between good and bad regarding well being
c. Malthus: only the pure survive
i. human population will increase geometrically until checked by some
countervailing force, while the “means for substance” can be expected to
increase only arithmetically
ii. The size of human population will grow until it eventually reaches a
plateau when the earth’s capacity to meet needs has been stretched to its
iii. At this point, it will stabilize as starvation causes the death rate to rise to
the level of the fertility rate
iv. If the means of subsistence increases, population will again rise to a new
1. Increase death rate
2. Decrease birth rate
i. Condorcet: best way to implement policies for fertility reduction used to
improve conditions of life for worst off
ii. Malthus: Carrying capacity - upper limit on population size set by the
availability of resources; focus on individual fertility decisions
e. Amartya Sen:
i. Famines are never caused by population size; the countries will still export
food (food is not the issue- it’s the DISTRIBUTION of food and
ii. Fertility will diminish when people are better off
iii. Poverty and misery increase the population!!!
iv. Cooperative systems are best - human development is the best
1. Fertility rates tend to fall toward stable levels when women have better opportunities for education
2. China (override) vs. Kerala (collaboration): fertility fell 2.6 (1979)
- 2.0 (1991) vs. fell 3.0 (1979) to 1.8 (1991)
12. In the film “Pray the Devil Back to Hell,” how did the Liberian women’s groups
achieve their goal of overthrowing a dictator?
a. Agroup of ordinary women in Liberia came together to pray for peace.Armed
only with white T-shirts and the courage of their convictions, they demanded a
resolution to the country’s civil war.
b. Under Leymah Gbowee's leadership, the women managed to force a meeting with
President Charles Taylor and extract a promise from him to attend peace talks in
Ghana. Gbowee then led a delegation of Liberian women to Ghana to continue to
apply pressure on the warring factions during the peace process. They staged a
silent protest outside of the Presidential Palace inAccra bringing about an
agreement during the stalled peace talks.
c. Working together, over 3,000 Christian and Muslim women mobilized their
efforts, and as a result, the women were able to achieve peace in Liberia after a
14-year civil war and helped bring to power the country’s (and the continent’s)
first female head of state.
13. How does Robertson define globalization? How does globalization trigger debate
about world order and a “search for fundamentals”
a. Robertson says that globalization universalizes the particular (a local trend
becomes well known due to globalization) and particularizes the universal
(McDonalds- something that is globalized becomes local in that it adapts to local
b. Particularization of the Universal and Universalization of the Particular.
Interaction in society when local culture becomes internationalized and vice versa
with global norms.
c. Search for fundamentals- due to globalization we are all searching for meaning-
things which unify us.
14. According to Bestor, how does the tuna trade exemplify contemporary
globalization? Is the spread of sushi’s popularity mean that cultural differences are
a. In “How Sushi Went Global” new channels for global flows of capital and
commodities link far-flung individuals and communities in unexpected new
relationships, like the trade of tuna. Sushi became “cool” and this lead to it having
a global influence. However globalization doesn’t homogenize, it simply becomes
more globalized (Robertson universalization of the particular).
b. Opened to global market
15. What is “food security”? Why is it so important? Can you give examples of the
causes of food insecurity? What are the competing arguments surrounding organic
and large-scale agriculture?
a. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic
access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
b. Food is a political issue: “there is no such thing as an apolitical food probleem”
i. It is government action/inaction that determines severity of naturally
occurring events that may trigger famine
ii. Dictators and warlords have used food as a political weapon, rewarding
their supporters while denying food supplies to areas that oppose their rule
iii. Food can become a currency with which to buy support
iv. Kleptocracy - gov't that hoards all the food/resources
c. Food insecurity: “a condition in which people lack basic food intake to provide
them with the energy and nutrients for fully productive lives”
i. Households in US that are more likely to experience food insecurity:
1. Female-headed with children
2. Those with income below poverty line
3. Those that reside in large cities or within rural areas
ii. The Global Food Crisis - if there’s enough food in the world, why are
1. Reliance on fossil fuels: food’s carbon footprint
2. Climate change
3. Biofuels: food vs fuels
4. Government protectionism/subsidies
5. Land deals
d. “Attention Whole Food’s Shoppers”by Paarlberg - argument that organic
techniques are slow and land-consuming. The majority of farmers inAfrica do not
use pesticides or GMOs and are de facto organic yetAfrica struggles with intense
food insecurity. GMOs and better irrigation technology would lead to bigger crop
yields and less food insecurity. Pesticides make food safer. Organic food is just
trendy and not realistic for tackling food insecurity.
e. “Don’t Panic Go Organic”by Lappe- argument that organic techniques are not
merely the absence of pesticides, mass irrigation and GMOs; they have their own
techniques based on biology and studying agriculture such as composting, double-
dug beds, etc. Industrial food has spawned many diet-related illnesses and
pesticide related deaths. GMOs have reduced biodiversity. In agroecological
approaches, farmers gain knowledge, including knowledge about ways to adapt to
changing climate and to share their knowledge with each other. Farmers become
less dependent on distant, centralized suppliers of high-priced biotech seeds and
chemical inputs and therefore less vulnerable to their notoriously unstable prices.
16. What is meant by sustainable development?
a. Development meets the needs of the present without compromising the future’s
b. Came out of the 1960’s environmental movement and was a key term by 2000s.
Combination of economics, society and environment. Concerned with the
ecological footprint (biodiversity, built land, bioproductive sea and land).
c. Sustainable development is different in developed North and developing South
i. For North it prioritizes efficiency
ii. For South it prioritizes poverty eradication
d. Key features of contemporary sustainable development approaches i. concern with environmental participation and economic growth
ii. concern with long term implications of development
iii. Sustainable development being attempted through NGOs
e. Key strengths
i. alerts people to dilemmas of development
ii. puts environmental issues at the forefront
iii. Environment and social issues are grouped together
iv. Rallying call for environmental groups
v. Emphasizes the issue of time
f. Key weakness
i. little attention to inequality
ii. little attention to the state
iii. too vague (“Do the green thing”)
17. What is “culture”? What are the ways in which culture is “transported” from place
Authors: Roberston, Strategic Inauthenticity, Barber, The Indian Film,
a. Culture is...