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Study Guide

[PHIL 1180] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (87 pages long)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1180
Professor
Ronald Sandler
Study Guide
Final

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NU
PHIL 1180
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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News
Tasmanian devil milk have peptides that help fight antibiotic resistant disease.
bioprospecting - looking in biological world that are useful in agriculture and medicine.
biopiracy - bioprospecting when the researchers take knowledge, make use of it, but don’t share the benefits
adequately or respect the values of the community. - taken and used without consent etc.
not all bioprospecting = biopiracy
Real food challenge
Saturday 333 curry center - 3PM
if you feed livestock seaweed - methane production goes down
good bc methane is 100x more potent than CO2
Review
1. Land Ethic
Standard interpretation (communitarian) - what people think Leopold thinks.
Alternative interpretation - Pragmatic Holism
not a communitarian - he is an enlightened anthropocentrist
he has never heard any of these things in his life - he is ecologist it might be a blend
need to recognize that we should promote biotic stability and be part of community
2. Deep ecology
Shallow environmentalism
views that promote better treatment of nonhuman world.
shallow bc position is mostly cleaning up excesses of our political and ideological system
try to include the costs of pollution and have greener production methods
doesn’t challenge underlying structural features of our economy, ideology, or social/political
issues
Deep ecology
fundamental problems have to be addressed
idea that we can have endless growth is wrong our world is finite.
we are always getting more ecient at producing more with the same amount of
resources
techno-optimism
38% of land is used for 1 species - not a lot of other potentially productive land
population has gone up - amount of land steady - less land per person.
we are producing more calories per person - how is that possible?
more ecient techniques, specialization, improved technology
growth without taking more resources.
Principles of deep ecology
commitment to value, beauty, purpose of
challenge our economic, political and social systems
being committed to take practical steps to do those things
not just trying to clean things up
Does this treat the eect or address the cause?
geoengineering - we can change the composition of the atmosphere to counteract climate
change - this does not address the cause.
Food - global food system is unsustainable.
the industrial system is the problem.
we need alternative food system - movements that we should change the system
rather than just paying people more etc.
Structural change vs cleaning up the system.
it is better to prevent than to adapt.
is not a unified single philosophy — it is an umbrella term — so long as they converge on these
types of principles where you must make deeper ideological structural change.
the pope is a deep ecologist.
need to change the power structure - dismantling the system.
Arne Naess - intellectual champion of deep ecology
ecological self
we are interdependent and interconnected in a deeper metaphysical sense
we are relational beings
we have to see ourselves as self-in-self
one node in the broader fabric of the world.
self-realization - piece of a larger whole.
you need to see yourself as the other then you will be able to treat the world
with love and respect - you need to understand yourself first.
Identification - unless you can see yourself in the other - you won’t care about the other.
Western ideologies - we see ourselves this way
native americans etc get it
if we can see ourselves that way - when we harm nature we are harming ourselves.
eastern and traditional philosophies
problem = we think of each one of ourselves as an isolated ego
we think about what serves our interests
everyone is an isolated distinct unit - how do you go about satisfying your interests.
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find more resources at oneclass.com
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Review
Holism - prioritize collections or systems rather than individual systems
Pragmatic holism - holism on the practical level
more traditional holistic view
What holistic entities do you have to care about?
Land ethic
primary unit of concern should be biotic community.
communitarian conception of ethics.
how you behave as a member of the community.
Humans are a member of the biotic community.
Deep Ecology
self-in-self idea - self-realization (philosophical)
why should you accept the principles of deep ecology.
deeper metaphysical reality - our relational self
we are one piece of this larger fabric that constitutes reality.
you cannot reason your way into this. - come to realize this through non-rational activities.
Buddhism
Why do you care about the individual - they are crucial to well functioning systems, etc.
Which one do you prioritize? should we individualist or holist?
individualist vs holistic
its ok to hunt because you don’t impact the whole population
catching a lot of fish
Holism handout:
Arguments against Individualism
if we don’t see ourselves as part of the community, we won’t treat it with love and respect.
individuals come and go, but species endure.
are ecosystems anything above their parts?
Normative nature - the way nature is, is that its supposed to be that way.
both connect that they both have no ecosystem interests.
in what sense do ecosystems have interests? if they don’t have interest how can they be benefitted or
harmed?
Why do you care about communities?
we should treat ecosystem based on the values of the individuals that make up the system.
Arguments against Individualism
Objection 1: Individualism has allowed us to create the undesirable ecological situation that we are in now.
Response: applies only to some version of individualism (egocentrism, ratio centrism, anthropocentrism).
Enlightened anthropocentrism instead of preference satisfaction is adequate.
Objection 2: Individualism is metaphysically untenable. We are not isolated individuals with our own wants,
needs, desires. We are merely one part in a larger whole (self-in-Self deep ecologist objection)
Response: Individuals with our own individual wants, needs and desires. there is no deep metaphysical
connection that deep ecologists claim. Dierent entities have dierent consciousness.
Objection 3: Individualism under appreciates the communal aspect of ethics. People thinking or acting
individually creates a large problems for everyone. Individuals require health community to flourish.
Response: criticism agains particular kinds of individualism (anthropocentric, egoistic).
Response 2: Pragmatic Holism
Arguments against The Land Ethic
Objection 1: There is no normative state of nature. what is the state of nature we ought to try to promote
and maintain? Nominalism- ecosystems are not goal oriented in themselves, individuals have interests.
Response: Ecological science will tell us what measures we should use for stability and integrity of an
ecosystem.
Objection 2: There is no way to accurately delineate the boundaries of a particular biotic community. One
big biotic community - Earth.
Response: Ecological science will tell us what earthly biota are closely connected.
Objection 3: An ecosystem or biotic community is nothing above and beyond the sum of its parts.
Response: just because something is made up of distinct parts does not mean it's nothing above and
beyond those parts. Body is made up of cells.
Objection 4: Ecosystem or biotic community does not have interests above and beyond the interest of the
individualists that comprise it. Only significant as it serves interests of morally considerable individuals.
Response: this objection fails to appreciate that ethics is fundamentally concerned with the well-
functioning of community
Objection 5: Ethics is not about well-functioning of community. Community is only significant in the interest
of morally considerable individuals.
Response: There are no morally considerable individuals outside the concept of community. Morality and
ethics do not exist in abstraction from a community.
Objection 6: Ecosystems and biotic communities are not communities as they are characterized by struggle
and conflict among individuals among them, not cooperation and coordination.
response: Community does not require cooperation and coordination between parts. Parts are
interconnected and interdependent.
Arguments against Deep Ecology
Objection 1: The conception of self that Deep ecology advocates is false. We are individuals with our own
distinct wants, needs, interests, desires.
Response: Self-realization cannot be intellectualized, it is experiential awareness. (if you continually
questions you will come to see that the deeper reality is that we are interconnected and interdependent -
this is not a valid form of justification)
Objection 2: How can one know if this experiential awareness is veridical or accurately depicts the way the
world is? (Buddhist monk and Christian monk experiment, once they are in the state of “oneness” they
click a button, in both cases, the same part of the brain had less activity)
Response: the experience verifies itself.
Spirituality
motivational
beneficial
not a bad thing, not because they teach us something deeper, they are themselves positive
experiences.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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