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Behavior Therapies Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3358
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
10/25 categorize our thoughts desired/functional • im on track • i can do this • i worked really hard • i cant wiat • yeah i look good • it will be okay or undesirable/problematic->problematic overt behavior • im going to embarass myself • im fat im going to fail • • i suck • im not prepared • im an idiot • i cant believe i did that • what was i thinking • im not good/smart/pretty enough paranoid thoughts • • ^thoughts can be antecedents, encourage you to do something relevant • cognitive restructuring • discriminant stimulus is an antecedent? (SD) • can also function as a MO bc can be a reinforcer/change the value of reinforcers • covert behavior very powerful, sign if impact on over behavior what is cognitive behavior thinking, covert behavior how do you identify your cognitions (write them down, self talk, become aware, look at your actions, looking at what oyu do & thoughts associated with it, interviews of you by therapist, rating scales and questionnaires people can fill out, similar process to identify as behavior assessment keep a log-self monitor or self record, therapist interviews, o)ert anchors, -interview -self recording -direct self report inventory, -think aloud procedures step 2: look at connection btwn covert and overt behavior treatment approaches • direct-change covert behavior • indirect-change overt behavior • combo • • cognitive restructuring • thought stopping • rational emotive behavior therapy • cognitive therapy • acceptance based therapy • benefits: clients learn self control skills that can be applied in other and future situations treating cognitive behavior-cognitive restructuring • utilize throughout stopping • interrupt disturbing thout “stop!” • focus on competing adaptive thought • reinterpret and re-imagine situation • to treat excessive maladaptive thoughts Rational emotive behavior therapy • albert ellis • emotioanly & maladaptive behavioral problems due to way people interpret them • uses cognitive restructuring to change irrational thoughts associated with such problems as anxiety, depression, anger, guilt • “i think therefore i feel” Self Management Procedures • self monitoring • self reinforcement self graphing • • makes you independent, makes you AWARE-> REACTIVITY • becomes reinforcing issues enlisting others’ involvement • they could be positive and motivating or negative towards goals • could impact relationship with that person • more hours, less consistent, why does it work • act of self monitoring functions as a cue/SD.reminder to engage in desired behavior- reactivity- • acts as reinforcer • tangible • person is invested, has control, part of it Habit • repetitive manipulative behavior that diminishes nervous tension and may be automatically reinforcing • occurs most often when the person experiences heightened tension or stress- nail biting hair pulling, • problematic when occuring at a high frequency, SIB causing self harm distracting, interfering with normal functioning, soically stigmatizing • usually escaping stress or tension habit reversal components • awareness training- cant work to change something unless youre aware of all aspects of it- aware youre engaging in it, & (when, why, who, consequenses) the URGE- if youre aware you want to do it & about to do it, pause in the urge • • competing response training • Differental Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior • competing response is incompatible with the habit- do something different with the part of your body that you have the habit as a problem with • social support • need people to help you (verbally) with especially with social activities, makes you more accountable • motivation procedure • help someone find something motivating to get them going group questions • explain motor/vocal tics and give ex’s (including tourettes) • repetitive jerking movements of a particular muscle group • vocal tic- repetitive vocal sounds that are not purposeful • facial twitching, shoulder raising • tourettes- motor & vocal tic, neurological/ genetic • describe treatment options • awareness training (urge & actual emission of behavior) • competing response- tensing muscles • social support- reminders, reinforcement Ch 23 • CONTRACTS • document that specifies a contingent relationship btwn the completion of a specified behavior and access to or delivery of a specified reward or activity • a written doc btwn 2 parties in which 1 or more parties agree to change their behavior • components: measurement system, timeframe, task record (chart to collect data on contract), • why task record included directly on contract? • place to record progress: 1) serves as reminder to view contract regularly; 2) can be used as checklist of tasks completed/data collection • clearly defined target behaviors • task: includes who, what, when, how well (may be used as a checklist for specific tasks to be completed) • objective measurement of the behavior • product (ie task completion)- completed hw, 9 pages of dissertation per week • direct observation • timeframe for engaging in behavior • clear statement of reinforcement or punishment contingency • who will implement the behavior • behavioral/contingency contract • in and of itself is an antecedent control procedure that includes a reinforcement component • relies on rule governed behavior •specified behavior will produce a specified consequence such delayed reinforcement may not work with the behavior if a rule was not • established •the contract itself serves as a cue to perform the behavior and a reminder of reinforcement to come (can be the interim reinforcer-checkmark, or delayed final consequence- outing) writing the contract hold a meeting- all parties involved • • identify tasks to be performed correctly • identify tasks to be performed or improved • identify potential rewards • write contracts typically involves negotiations & compromise • why do contracts work? • public commintment and accountability • clearly defined behaviors and contingencies • compromise • reasonable goals • social support (cues, praise) • ADVANTAGES • positive • individualized • facilitates consistency esp btwn home & school • involvement of more individuals such as parents encourages self-determination and self-management • • facilitates independence • easy to implement • socially valid method (articles-> get notes) rule governed behaviors: you behave bc of contingency shapes? youre going to go speed limit not bc you get a ticket, but ticket would be contingency for people who break the rule token economy • generalized because it can be exchanged for a lot of different things • conditioned bc token is paired w other different items in past, gains value, in itself has no reinforcing value • is phased out • immediate reinforcement so that youre not always giving away bigger reinforcers • level systems (big token economies)- good for MIC? choose what chores? backup reinforces, points or stickers for doing things, after certain number of points earn things, maybe lose things with punishment contingency • fade by make exchange less frequent when behaviors you want are established what is a behavior chain • a series of individual stimulus-response components that occur together in a sequence • SD-> blah blah blah -> FINAL REINFORCER • forward (teaching each step, order) or backwards chaining (everything til the end)-> • task analysis-> break down skills into a bunch of little parts what are the advantages to using behavior chains to teach adaptive skills? • teach ADL’s (activities of daily living), what must you do to develop a chaining procedure • conduct task analysis • assess mastery of each step (single or multiple opportunity method) • determine changing procedures (backward/forward/total task presentation) how do you determine the steps in a task analysis? • observe • test the chain • consult experts • perform the behaviors forward chaining • steps taught in temporal order, reinforcement is provided for cumulative steps performed in the correct order • teach long complex chains as a series of smaller skill clusters. final response of one cluster sets the occasion for the first response in the next cluster (ie premeal, meal, postmeal) how do you teach each step? • model/demonstrate • put something together • pictures, words, (written instructions) • hand over hand- manual guidance backward chaining- when you need to complete the task itself to complete chaining, immediate reinforcement • trainer completes all steps except the final step • advantage: leads to immediate reinforcement for completion of entire chain disadvantage: takes longer bc it limits the number of responses in any given session • total task presentation • variation of forward chaining • each step is trained during every session or one step is taught but assistance is ..... how can inappropriate behavior also be a chain? how do you break the chain to eliminate the behavior? • SD causes start of chain • break an inappropriate chain right at the beginning break chain by changing initial SD to override other SD that occasioned the chain ie • smoking nail biting, obscenity interval methods • time sample is divided into consecutive time intervals (10s, 20s) • estimate of responding • occurrence of nonoccurence or response is recorded in each interval • auditory cue • use when beginning and end of behavior is hard to discern and/or very high rate behavior • percentage of intervals whole interval recording • record response if occurs throughout interval • observe during the interval, record immediately following interval • use w continuous high rate behaviors, such as stereotypy, motor tics partial interval • behavior only has to occur one time momentary-time-sampling observations occur at end of interval • • allows you to do something else at same time • gives you an estimate • good for teachers, supervisors etc • allows you to collect data on multiple individuals, multiple behaviors, • longer intervals (10, 30 minutes) • record behaviors that are occurring at time of observations- • playcheck • tally how many behaviors, how many individuals, find percentage (systematic way of doing this)sampling method of a group of individuals • group is observed at end of interval # of individuals engaged in behavior is tallied and compared to total # of individuals in groups appropriate behaviors: play skills, on task, cooperation Percent occurrence • # of responses/total opportunities to respond x 100 • use when opportunities to respond are not constant- restricted operants • ex 1: correct responses to greetings • ex 2 correct responses to flashcards or math problems how do you determine which response measure is most appropriate for the situation? how many ppl, number of behaviors, rates of behaviors, behavior have a clear onset or offset, define behavior and its characteristics, intensity, latency, restricted/free behavior, behavioral dimension (cognitive ability, temporal extent?) interobserver agreement 2 ppl observing same behavior at same time • • not doing it together- independent • to assess reliability and validity • 30-40% of the time reliability checks- someone comes and observes with you (35 % of the time) • more ioa and more often is more complex observational systems or individual or severe behavior or individual mean ioa- you want 85% or higher (with 2+ observers)->leads to more believability in • the data, more confidence in the data • low ioa is a problem • ioa does not assess accuracy, only agreement • agreement- correspondence of data from different observers • accuracy- extent that data reflects actual performance • computing agreement • frequency ratio • frequency counts • smaller total responses/larger total responses x 100 • % agreement • no agreement on actual instance of behavior, just of overall totals • why is ioa coming out bad? bad definition • • familiarity of environment • hard to stay focused (experimenter) • self-fulfilling • if you know someone too well • if youre angry • data collection system itself may not be good factors affecting accuracy and reliability of observers • reactivity • solution: have an adaptation period where everyone gets used to each other and it dissipates • observer drift • unknowingly modify operational definition • (concentual drift exists as well) • go back, do training, look at everything, talk about it, observe observer, • observer expectations • experimenter feedback • complexity of observations Treatment integrity • degree to which the ind variable (treatment) is implemented as intended • threat to internal/external validity of study • cannot attribute changes to trtmnt • replication is hard purpose of lit review? • 1980-1990 • children under 19 yrs • JABA articles • was the independent variable operationally defined • provided enough info for replication • specified all required parameters (verbal, physical, temporal, spatial) was treatment integrity assessed? • • reported as % • monitored as Monitored but not reported as % • findings • 15 studies • 16% studies measured and reported integrity • 34% provided operational def of ind variable but not monitor integrity • 9% monitored integrity but didnt not provide data • 2/3 didnt provide op def of ind def EXAMPLE james, teaching 2nd grade, trouble staying in seat, paying attention, & participating (sarah)- gets out of seat and talks to/teases other students, when out of seat doesnt pay attention participate and disrupts other kids, james believes if she stays in seat all would be solved target behavior: staying in seat 1st: behavioral assessment- define behavior (op def, problem behaviors, function, escape/avoidance- times, people, curriculum, learning disability, frequency-> scatter plot) how to collect data (sitting in seat, par
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