[PSYC 3404] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (14 pages long)

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PSYC 3404
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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January 9th, 2017
Chapter 1: A Cultural Approach to Human Development
Section 1: Human Development Today & Its Origins
-population growth and change
total fertility rate (TFR): # of births per woman
-worldwide is 2.5
global demographic divide: majority of population and population growth
comes from economically developing countries
developed countries: most economically developed and affluent, highest
median levels of income and education
developing countries: countries that have lower levels of income and
education but are experiencing rapid economic growth (82% of world
population)
USA has different demographic path because
-TFR is 1.9
-allows more legal immigration (and there are millions of undocumented)
-variations across countries
40% of world population lives on less than $2/day
80% of world population lives on family income of less than $6,000/year
cultures of developed countries tend to be individualistic; cultural values
such as independence and self-expression
cultures of developing countries are collectivistic; cultural values such as
obedience and group harmony
traditional cultures: in developing countries, a rural culture that adheres
more closely to cultural traditions than people in urban areas do
globalization: increasing connections between different parts of the world in
trade, travel, migration, and communication
-variations within countries
majority culture: within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the
norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic,
intellectual, and media power
contexts: settings and circumstances that contribute to variations in
pathways of human development, including SES, gender, and ethnicity, as
well as family, school, community, media & culture
SES: socioeconomic status; includes educational level, income level, and
occupational status
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ethnicity: group identity that may include components such as cultural
origin, cultural traditions, race, religion, and language
-human origins and the birth of culture
ontogenetic: characteristic pattern of individual development in a species
phylogenetic: pertaining to the development of a species
natural selection: evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted
to their environment survive to produce offspring of their own
hominid: evolutionary line that led to modern humans
homo-sapiens: species of modern humans
hunter-gatherer: social and economic system in which economic life is based
on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by
females)
upper paleolithic period: period of human history from 40,000-10,000 years
ago, when distinct human cultures first developed
neolithic period: era of human history from 10,000- 5,000 years ago, when
animal and plants were first domesticated
civilization: form of human social life that includes cities, writing,
occupational specialization & states
state: centralized political system that is an essential feature of a
civilization
evolutionary psychology: branch of psychology that examines how patterns
of human functioning and behavior that have resulted from adaptations to
evolutionary conditions
Section 2: Theories of Human Development
-3 ancient conceptions of human development are Hindus (4 main stages),
Solon (Ancient Greece), and Talmud (Jewish Holy Book)
all differ in how they divide up the lifespan
shows there are no definitive stages biologically like a bug; they are also
culturally and socially based
-scientific conceptions
psychosexual approach
-Freud said sexual desire is the driving force behind human development
psychosocial approach
-Erikson’s theory that human development is driven by the need to
become integrated into the social and cultural environment
ecological theory
-Bronfenbrenner said human development is shaped by 5 interrelated
systems in the social environment
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