Dev Exam - Outline.doc

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Northeastern University
PSYC 3404
Christina Cipriano Crowe

Write an essay which identifies the key relationships across the lifespan infancy early childhood middle childhood and adolescence and emerging adulthood Make sure to discuss the developmental significance of each relationship Relationships in InfancyIbabies are very social from an early ageAThrough social interaction babies learn new skills from their peers 1They can learn from other children advancing their own developmentaThese interactions play an important role in their social and emotional developmentBSocial Referencing1The intentional search for information about others feelings to help explain the meaning of uncertain circumstances and eventsIIFamilial RelationshipsAThe process of social development during infancy is absolutely CRUCIAL1It provides the foundation for all the infants future social relationships through the lifespanBThe most important aspect of these relationships is attachment1Based off human need for attachment and securityaPlays a large role in later life2Ainsworth Strange Situation Strength of attachment between baby and caregiveraSecure attachment At ease feel able to explore away from the motherbAvoidant attachment appear indifferent to the presence of the mothercAmbivalent attachment Display a combination of positive and negative reactions to the motherdDisorganizedDisoriented Attachment Display inconsistent confused or contradictory behavior1The style of attachment plays a role in the future development of the child aPlays a role in relationships later in lifebSecurely attached infants typically are more socially and emotionally competent later in lifeiIn cases where a disruption occurs in attachment reactive attachment disorder can occurlead to trouble forming new attachments in the future 3Attachment with MotheraMothers of securely attached infants display the appropriate levels of response1They are affectionate warm and interact and empathize with the childaOver responsive mothers can cause a negative effect4Attachment with FatheraThe affection and concern of the father is equally important to the social and emotional development of the child1Some psychological disorders such as substance abuse and depression are more linked to the behavior of the father5Trust vs MistrustaErik Eriksons Theory of Psychosocial Development1All depends on if their needs are being met by their caregiversaIf infants can develop trust then they trust that they can soon fulfill their own needsbIf infants fail to develop trust they distrust the world and have difficulty developing bonds in the future IIIPeer RelationshipsAAlthough there are no typical friendships in infancy child do positively respond to interactions with their peers
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