[PSYC 3450] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 55 pages long Study Guide!

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PSYC 3450
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Learning and Motivation
1/10/17: Why do we do what we do?
Rat in Maze: rat traverses because it is hungry motivation, rat turns left
      ,    ,   ’
environment learning.
Learning + motivation = behavior
Disordered Learning: H.M (Henry Molaison): epilepsy, damage to hippocampus
critical to learning and memory suffered from seizures, removed hippocampus.
- 1953 at age 27 had surgery     , frozen
  
Disordered Motivation: Phineas Gage: 1848 sent spike through skull, puncturing
frontal lobes, personality changed dramatically, lost impulse control need
control over motivations
Motivation: refers to any non-instrumental goal that drives behavior, anything
that causes action not for any other goal but for its own sake
- sometimes called primary or unconditioned reinforces
Sources of Motivation:
- Drives
o Innate, internally generated sources of behavior
o Biological needs/imperatives
o NOT a response to a cue, but can be enhanced by cues
(something might spark hunger but hunger coming from inside)
o Ex: food, water, sex, social status
- Instinctive behaviors
o Biologically programmed behavior patterns
o
Triggered
by environmental
stimulus
,
not result of learning
o Emerge in biologically programmed form;
inflexible
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o Ex: imprinting (usually ducks mother, but first thing they see)
   , ’     
o Ex: humans instinctive fear of snakes (baby who has not seen
snake still has fear, know without learning)
o :  ’       – have instinct
triggered by the closed border, even if has no protection, very
inflexible
- Learning motivations
o Develop motivation
through learning
o ’        
o Any behavior that is
pursued for its own sake
, rather than to
achieve other goal
o Does not accomplish anything but still rewarding
o Ex: drug addiction, playing video games
Why are you here? Not an instinct, maybe a learned motivation, example of
instrumental goals (Skinner) need to come in to pass class, need to complete
major, complete degree, get career, satisfaction and meaningful work OR
money, which leads to drive fulfilment
Learning: ely permanent change in behavior potential that results from
,    ,      
flexible
- Learning does not always lead to behavior; lead to tendency to
behave under certain circumstances
- Permanent learning would just be acquiring new instincts
Types of Learning
- Non-associative learning: modification of a response (habituation and
sensitization)
- Stimulus-stimulus (classical conditioning/Pavlovian)
- Stimulus-response (operant conditioning)
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