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Learning and Motivation Notes (got 92% in the course!)

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3450
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Learning and Motivation 1 1/11 What is Learning process of understanding comprehending, be able to apply and use and recall and • manipulate new info How do We Learn • use short term to store until you put info into long term memory What is Motivation • desire to do do something- learn 1/14 Learning Is... • “the process by which environmental factors influence behavior” • “the process by which changes n behavior arise as a result of experience interacting with the world” • “...lifelong process...” • “cognitive procss of acquiring skill or knowledge- childs acquisition of language Principle of Learned Behavior • most behavior is learned • behavior can be changed How Do We Learn? • questioning assumptions, challenging beliefs • imitations • all senses • first hand exp • trial and error • social interactions • intrinsic and extrinsic feedback • repetition • teaching others • observation being taught • reading • • exposure • memorization • memorization • association • listening/auditory feedback • video • exp of others Learning and Motivation 2 • talking What is Motivation? • internal motivation • external motivation History of ABA • late 1800s/early 1900s • Pavlov •respondent/classical condition •neutral stimulus (bell) can be conditioned to elicit a response (salivation by dog) after being paired/reinforced (rewarded) with food • Thorndike •law of effect: behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated in the future Watson • •1913”psychology as the behaviorist views it” • psych should be concerned w observable behavior • behavior was controlled by environmental events • described S-R (stimulus-response) paradigm - environmental events (stimiuli) elicit responses • started behaviorism Behaviorism • philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of the science of behavior • goal is prediction and control of behavior • involves objective eval and study of behavior • rejects mentalistic explanations, states of mind, and mental processes • focuses on observable relationships between environmental stimuli and repsonses Experimental Analysis of Behavior- 1938 • BF Skinner • different histories • different genetics • cultural differences • support systems • mental illness • our biology-anything in our body’s make-up • (1 variable may control mult behaviors) Behavior Occurs (functions) for a Reason • attention/tangibles (social positive reinforcement) • escape/avoidance (social negative reinforcement) • Preferred sensory (automatic positive reinforcement) • sensory escape/avoidance (automatic negative reinforcement) What factors influence our behaviors? Phylogeny • Genetics • Biology Ontogeny • Past history [of reinforcement & punishment] • current envi variables have an effect through conditioning/learning • Heredity, Biology, Environment, & Learning • all affect each other heredity and biology make up the foundation upon which learning occurs • • Likewise ‘learning’ from the environment can modify one’s bio (altering CNS activity, neuropathways) • behavioral methods of teaching children with autism Learning and Motivation 4 • clinical behavior therapy to treat, for example, depression & schizophrenia Principle of Learned Behavior • Most behavior is Learned • behavior can be changed Types of Behavior • Overt • Covert • overt anchors Reciprocal Determinism • Environment • Overt Behavior • Covert Behavior • thoughts, behavior affect each other, all that affected by environment! • ALL CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER! Behavior described by • Response topography • physical shape/form of behavior Behavior Characterized by • function Environment • comprises all external influences on behaviors • physical setting • people • sounds • temp • internal events/envi • external=stimuli 1/25- Basic Terms Response • instance of behavior • measurable unit of analysis Response Class • group of responses with same function- share elements to facilitate same consequence Stimulus • any condition, event, or change in the physical world • ppl, places things: light, sound, odor, taste, texture Learning and Motivation 5 •some affect our behavior some dont • have physical dimensions • occur inside and outside body • occur prior to, during, and after behavior of interest Stimulus Class • set of stimuli with a common relationship •categories (food, animals, clothing) •how they affect behavior (temporal relationship, antecedents, consequences) •concepts (chair, color red) 3-Term Contingency • Antecedent-> Behavior-> Consequence • describes a specific operant (generates consequence) Anticedent stimulus that occurs before the target behavior • Behavior • the target behavior Consequence • stimulus that occurs after the target behavior and as a result of the behavior • contingency: interdependency of antecedents, behavior, consequences • specifies the temporal and functional relationship btwn antecedents, behavior, and consequences is the basis of behavioral methods to change behavior • •methods involve manipulation of the antecedents and/or consequences Discriminative Stimulus (SD)/ Antecedent • Any event or condition that sets the occasion for a response to occur. The presentation or occurrence of an SD makes the response more likely to occur. • •Example: The teacher saying “Time for circle” (SD) makes it more likely that the class will sit down for circle. Functional Relationship • exists btwn A-B-C when Changes in the A or C consistently change some aspect of the behavior (usually • rate of occurrence) 2 Categories of Behavior: Respondent & Operant • Behaviors (more specifically responses) are categorized on the basis of whether their rate of occurence is controlled by •the stimulus events that occur before the behavior is elicited (antecedents) - respondent behavior •the stimulus events that occur after the behavior is emitted (consequences) - operant behavior Respondent Behavior • eliciting stimulus + behavior it produces = REFLEX Learning and Motivation 6 S->R • Rate of response is determined by the rate of the eliciting stimulus. Without presentation of the stimulus, the respondent won’t occur • • Unlearned responses • Based on genetic endowment • Set of built in responses • Serve to regulate and protect the organism • Can also be conditioned and changed • Determined by the phylogenetic history (inherited history, genetic background) of the individual • Examples: blinking, salivating, pupil dilation and contraction Operant Behavior • Behaviors that operate in the environment to generate consequences • Stimulus (+/-) -> Response-> Reinforcement Consequences control the future occurrence of operant behavior. • • Consequences affect the probability that similar responses will occur sometime in the future under similar stimulus conditions. • Operant behavior is dynamic as it responds to changing environmental conditions. • Operant behavior is primarily influenced by ontogenetic history. • Interactions with environment • Unique experiences of an organism Free vs Restricted Operants • Free Operants Can be emitted at any time • • Discrete • Does not require much time for completion • Ex: reading, many social behaviors, stereotypy • Restricted Operants • Rates of occurrence are determined by opportunities to respond • Ex: naming words on flashcards, saying hello to someone who says hello first 4-Term Contingency • MO-> A-> B-> C • Motivating Operation-> Anticedent-> Behavior-> Consequence • Alters the current value of a stimulus as a reinforcer (value-altering) • Satiation (decreases value) • Deprivation (increases value) • Alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus (behavior-altering) Increase in the reinforcing value of a stimulus – establishing operation • • Decrease in the reinforcing value of a stimulus – abolishing operation Sources of Motivating Operations • Increase in painful or aversive stimulus • makes escape/avoidance more reinforcing Learning and Motivation 7 • ie, hunger, thirst, social isolation, boredom, fatigue, being too warm, etc Deprivation • time when ind doesnt experience the reinforcer • longer deprivation time, stronger reinforcer Satiation • the object or event is no longer reinforcing due to overexposure Reinforcement What is Operant Reinforcement? • Behavior-> Stimulus occurs or is removed-> Future responses increase • Stimululus that is added is rewarding, is good, • stimulus that is bad is aversive Operant Reinforcement strengthens a response class • Positive Reinforcement • stimulus is presented contingent upon a response • increases a behavior under similar stimulus conditions •praise, edible, sticker, etc Negative reinforcement • reduces, terminates or prevents the occurence of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a response • increases behavior under similar stimulus conditions •removing tight shoes, turning down the tv Contingencies related to neg reinforcement • Escape: existing stimulus is terminated • Avoidance: response avoids rather than terminates a stimulus 2/1 MOVIE • teacher training on what its like to have a behavior •offer motivation, punish, blame the victim •learning disability is a perception problem (ex: face of a cow picture) • reading comprehension- 95% taught through vocab •must have the background to understand it •answering q’s does not show comprehension • learning disabled child will do something wrong and not know why •name a picture of a skull-> misperception causes inappropriate response from child Visual Motor Coordination • reproduce the letter, draw only looking at a mirror-mixed message from eyes and hand •makes writing very difficult • dysnomia- word finding problem-> so they give way to much info when telling a story •storage and retrieval systems Learning and Motivation 8 • cant remember or store in the wrong place • associative task: can do 2+ at the same time (drive & talk) • cognitive task: can do only 1 at a time- requires a lot of attention (some kids cant listen and take notes) • learning disabled kids turn each other in when they make mistakes • learning disabled children need TIME Reading and Decoding • difficulty with reversals (pqbd) • teachers use rhetorical q’s all the time • when all energy went into decoding they dont understand it • Auditory learner-dont understand unless heard FAIRNESS- (kohlberg)---> kids learn by model, morals need to be developed • •fair: everything gets what they need • in order to be fair you have to treat learning disabled kids differently 1/4 Automaticity • consequences affect behavior in an automatic/mechanistic way • does not need to be cognitive understanding of reinforcement in order for it to work •by going to work, got paid, kept working Primary Reinforcers • stimuli or events that, by virtue of their biological importance function as reinforcers • in a state of deprivation the reinforce automatically- food, sex, warmth, sleep, liquids, physical reinforcement Secondary (Conditioned) Reinforcers • initially neutral stimuli that have acquired reinforcing capability because of being paired with primary reinforcers or established secondary reinforcers • money: can buy primary reinforcers • types •tangibles, activity oriented, social, generalized Generalized Reinforcers • effectiveness does not depend on single kind of deprivation (hunger, thirst, sleep deprivation, etc) • maintains behavior over time and is less likely to lead to satiation (tokens & $) • exchanged for backup reinforcers Premack Principle (Grandma’s Law) • access to high probability behavior is contingent upon the occurrence of low frequency behavior •“you can have dessert when your veggies are done” •increases probability of low probability behavior because after something good will happen (high probability behavior reinforcers the low probability behavior) Learning and Motivation 9 Bootleg Reinforcement • unplanned reinforcement • can impact effectiveness of a reinforcement program Contingent vs Non-Contingent Reinforcement Contingent • behavior must occur before a reinforcer will be presented Non-Contingent • reinforcer is presented at a particular time irrespective of the preceding behavior Adventitious Reinforcement • behavior is accidentally strengthened by non-contingent reinforcement--> superstitious behavior after it was true at least once before Factors in current environment that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement Timing • more immediate, more likely you are to increase or maintain the behavior Consistency • behavior is reinforced according to the requirements of an established schedule of reinforcement Amount or Magnitude • higher = more likely to change behavior Quality • better quality! Novelty Making Use of Rules • not necessary that individual understand why he/she was reinforced • but instructions can • speed up learning process • teach skill of following instruction REINFORCER • item of event that is presented or removed following the behavior • functions to increase or maintain the behavior Which items are most preferred? Systematic Preference Assessments Which items function as reinforcers? Reinforcer Assessments Structured Client/Staff/Caregiver Interview • identify preferred items/activities from a list of items in different categories • rank in order of preference • not always reliable or consistent • items identified as preferred may not function as reinforcers • helpful in determining for systematic assessment Learning and Motivation 10 Single Stimulus Preference Assessment (pace et al 1985) • experiment 1 •16 items presented 1 at a time •client approach responses measured •if client approached item 80% of the time item was preferred • exp 2 •measured responding to requests with contingent presentation of preferred or non- preferred items • false positives Forced/Paired Choice Assessment (fisher et al 1992) • also called concurrent operant paradigm • present 2 items simultaneously • faster • false negatives Multiple Preference Assessment • several items are presented “choose 1” • rank items as highly preferred, preferred, least preferred • items may or may not be removed after they are selected • very lengthy Research Findings • staff assessment not always consistent with systematic preference assessments • items identified in syst. ass. functioned, for the most part, as reinforcers • items identified as non preferred did not function as reinforcers • stimulus variation and novelty increased on-task behavior and correct responding and decreased satiation with 3 children who had dev disabilities 2/8 • only a reinforcer if increases future behavior of preferred blah blah blah Schedules of Reinforcement • Specifies the rate of reinforcement • is the behavior going to be reinforced •continuously? (CRF) •every so often? (INTERMITTENT) • after a specified period of time? (INTERVAL SCHEDULE- ratio) • after a specified number of time? Continuous Rate of Reinforcement (CRF) • every response followed by reinforcement • used to est a behavior or during the initial learning or acquisition period Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules • some behaviors/responses are reinforced but not all used to maintain behaviors or newly learned skills • Learning and Motivation 11 • types or intermittent scheds: • Ratio (fixed & variable) • Interval (fixed & variable) Ratio Schedules- Fixed Ratio • requires a number of responses befores one response produces reinforcement • reinforcement occurs after specified # of responses • ex: FR2. FR4, FR7 • earning a token after every 3rd response: FR3 • responding occurs at a high rate with a short pause immediately following reinforcement. the higher the # of responses required, the higher the rate of behavior • with fixed reinforcement schedule, pause reinforcement pause • goal- to move to variable schedule Ratio Schedules-Variable Ratio • Reinforcement varies. it is delivered after an avg # of responses • ex: VR2, VR4, VR7 • earning a token after approximately every 3rd response: VR3 • responding occurs at a steady high rate without a short pause (reinforcement is unpredictable) • Useful to promote a high rate of productivity • factory assembly line- earn a break after assembling about 20 widgets • academic responding- earn 1 min more of recess time after completing about 10 multiplication problems • cold calling- the more calls you make, the more likely you are to make a sale • SLOT MACHINE 2/11 Interval Schedules: Fixed Interval (FI) • reinforcement is delivered immediately following the first response after a specified time period • responses that occur before the interval is up are not reinforced • FI 15 reinforcement is delivered for the first response that occurs after 15 min has lapsed • Paychecks Variable interval • you dont know EXACTLY when it will happen Reinforcement Schedule with Limited Hold • Reinforcement unavailable (bus has not arrived) • 1st response occurring here will be reinforced (30 seconds to hop on the bus) Learning and Motivation 12 • Interval is reset and reinforcement is unavailable (bus left, youll have to wait for another one) • ex: FI 30 min LI 10 min- every 30 min, reinforcement is available after the first chore that is completed but is only available for 10 min Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement • at any given time, multiple schedules of reinforcement are available for a person • the behaviors that are emitted are determined by: •immediacy •magnitude •response effort • important when trying ti decrease a challenging behavior and replace it with a more adaptive behavior Schedule Thinning • important to thin schedules to a natural rate of reinforcement to maintain a behavior across time • thin schedule slowly. if sched is thinned too quickly, ratio strain may occur Ratio Strain • when a sched is faded too rapidly, responding deteriorates Behavioral Contrast • implement sched of reinforcements in one setting and not another, behavior deteriorates in one setting and improves in the other (not consistent btwn the 2) Extinction Burst • behavior gets worse before better • ex: vending machine doesnt work- you kick it etc (gets worse) before better (you give up) Spontaneous Recovery • behavior randomly spikes then improves (will happen again even if taught otherwise) Learning and Motivation 13 2/15 Resistance to Extinction • Intermittent schedules more resistant • Variable schedules more resistant • Fixed schedules less than variable • CRF schedules least resistant • • Best to implement with other programs (differential reinforcement) • like tantrum behavior to stake a demand (escape), • bad practice to implement extinction without teaching a replacement behavior • extinguishing unwanted response and reinforcing wanted response MOVIE: Differential Reinforcement • target behavior 1- increased • target behavior 2- extinction (decreased) • alternate behaviors • reinforcing appropriate alternative • incompatible behavior • reinforces a behavior that is incompatible to the problem behavior • other behaviors Differential Reinforcement • reinforcer is applied to one member of a response class of behavior and withdrawn (no longer given) to the other member • reinforced behavior increases • non-reinforced behavior decreases Differential Reinforcement Schedules Used to Decrease Behavior • family of reinforcement ... Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) • DRA reinforces the occurrence of a target behavior that is intended to replace the undesired behavior • types • DRI • DNRA DRC • • examples in book Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI) • a behavior that is topographically incompatible with the behavior selected for reduction is reinforced Differential Reinforcement of Communication (DRC)-> Functional Communication Training? • problem behavior is extinguished • functional responses are reinforced Learning and Motivation 14 Differential Reinforcement of Negative Alternative Behaviors (DNRA) • N MEANS NEGATIVE IN DNRA • outline all aspects and the results of the program described for “Jason” pg 316-8 • behavior is for escape or avoidance, • negative reinforcement 2/18 Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) • or zero rates of behavior (ex: i will give you a token if you do not hit anyone every five mins) • use when you dont have another behavior to reinforce • sometimes used before a DRA AKA diff reinforcement of zero responding or omission training • Fixed Interval DRO • interval stays the same • behavior is absent through interval->reinforcer is delivered • if the problem behavior occurs, interval reset • how to fade interval.... • dro, increase IRT (inter response time) Variable Interval DRO • Behavior is absent throughout entire interval • interval duration varies-> reinforcer is delivered Momentary DRO • behavior is absent for whole of interval Whole interval DRO behavior needs to be absent at the end of the interval • Differential Reinforcement of Lower Rates of Behaviors (DRL) • if you want to lower the rate but not extinguish it PUNISHMENT • decreases the behavior • add an aversive stimulus • or take a preferred stimulus away • but it always decreases behavior Type 1 (positive punishment- adding an aversive stimulus) • overcorrection • contingent exercise • Contingent application of an aversive stimulus Contingent application of an aversive stimulus EX: • Learning and Motivation 15 • soap in mouth, tobasco, aversive tastes • reprimands, looks • spanking, paddle, ruler to wrists • loud noises • more veggies • extra hw/essays • water mists Unconditioned vs Conditioned Punishers • Unconditioned- punishing w/o prior experience, biologically punishing (going barefoot in the snow-> SENSATIONS THAT WILL BE PUNISHING BECAUSE IT BIOLOGICALLY SUCKS FOR YOUR BODY) • Conditioned- conditioned a neutral stimulus to be punishing by pairing it with an unconditioned or already conditioned punisher (“NO” with look and hit on the hand-> “no” becomes a punisher) Overcorrection Restitutional Overcorrection • •restore the environment to a better state than it was in before •environmental destruction • Positive Practice Overcorrection •practice the alternative response repeatedly Contingent Exercise • Do an exercise contingent on the behavior • not necessarily similar to the problematic behavior Type 2/ Negative punishment Time Out • withdraw the opportunity to earn reinforcement or the loss of access to positive reinforcers contingent on the occurrence of a behavior •Nonexclusionary TO-> sitting in the corner watching everyone exclusionary TO-> sent to room • • not useful as punisher if kids are self stimulatory, or looking for escape/avoidance Response Cost • loss of an amount of reinforcement already available •loss of tokens •fine •ticket •losing recess - time 2/22 (differential reinforcement scenarios) punishment game show is posted Ways to Implement DRL • you can specify total number, how many are going to be reinforced total Learning and Motivation 16 • you can specify the interval/spaced responding (responding to the question every five minutes) • in both scenarios, the total response number decreases Ways to Specify DRO • is the interval fixed or variable? • Momentary (absent when the interval ends) or whole interval (absent throughout the interval) Fair pair rule: if you extinguish one behavior you have to teach another behavior _________________________________________(starting the power point) Punishment Time out ribbon • only able to talk to child if they have a ribbon, take away a ribbon if do inappropriate behavior and get it back after 2 minutes if they have not completed behavior again • type of nonexclusionary TO • use differential reinforcement to increase desirable behavior Response cost • removal of specific amount of reinforcer already possessed contingent on a behavior (something you already have and you loose) • Ticket, key, token, bill, fine • Be able to distinguish from time out Use punishment when… • Dangerous behavior to self or others • Clients have the right to effective treatment (informed consent be informed to all benefits, risks, and what will happen during procedure) Nee
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