PSYC 3458 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Edwin Smith Papyrus, Axon Terminal, Motor Neuron

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PSYC 3458
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Tuesday, September 13, 2016
Bio Psych: Chapter 1
A History of Neuroscience
-What is neuroscience?
study of biological mechanisms that allow the nervous system to mediate a myriad
of experiences (sensory perception, motor functions, cognitive abilities, emotions)
in normative + diseased states
bio psych/neuroscience: aims to understand how the structure and function of the
brain relate to behavior
-The Beginning
First written reference to the brain (~1700BC)
-Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus: translated in the 1930’s
-likely rewritten from 30th century BC/Imhotep
-Ancient “Brain” Surgery
Trephining/Trepanation (~6500BC)
-releases inter-cranial pressure (might actually diminish some symptoms)
-for the most part, it was done to “release evil spirits”
-first evidence of survival surgery—> evidence that there was some healing of the
bone
-The Ancient Greeks
Alcmaeon (5th Century BC)
-dissections: established connection between brain and sensory organs
-“The seat of sensation is in the brain”
Aristotle (4th Century BC)
-believed that the heart was “the seat of intelligence” and that the brain cooled the
blood (observed fluid-filled ventricles)
Hippocrates (4th Century BC)
!1
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Tuesday, September 13, 2016
-the brain is “the seat of intelligence”
-observed soldiers with head injuries
-“the brain exercises the greatest power in the man”
-Early Anatomical Studies
Galenus (Galen; ~200AD)
-Hippocrates Bodily Humors Theory of Human Temperaments
imbalance of one of the four bodily fluids: blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm
-ventricles must be connected to the body
-bloodletting (can help balance these things)—> have a physician bleed you
(leeches, small cuts, intravenous bloodletting)—> homeostasis
-The Renaissance (~1500 AD)
Vesalius
-dissected human cadavers- described characteristics of the brain
Descartes
-dualism: mind and body
brain is a machine- fluid from brain contracts muscles
-pineal gland
produces melatonin
mediates sleep/wake cycles
-Phrenology
the shape of your head is responsible for different personality types/behaviors
Franz Joseph Gall (mid 1800’s)
-specific mental processes/traits are related to specific parts of the brain- revealed
by the skull
-now considered a “pseudoscience”
-influenced modern neuroscience
!2
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