PSYC 3458 Midterm: BIO PSYCH- Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYC 3458
Jennifer Honeycutt

BIO PSYCH: Exam 1 Study Guide Astrocyte: CNS/PNS Most abundant cell in brain provides nutrients and scaffolding and nervous system repair Oligodendrocyte: Provides myelin to CNS neurons Schwann: Myelin in PNS and guidnace Satellite: Lines exterior surface of neurons in PNS and provides support Ependymal:
 Produces cerebrospinal fluid producing cells and line ventricles Microglia: Tissue repair debris removal immune CNS/PNS 10-15% of all brain cells Axosecratory: Axon terminal secretes directly into bloodstream Axoaxonic: Axon secretes directly into another axon First written reference to the brain : Edwin Smith's surgical papyrus translated in 1930's Likely written by imhotep in 30th century BC Trephining : Drilling holes in the head to release demons (6500 BC) Alcamaeon: 5th Century BC Performed dissections and established connection between brain and sensory organs Aristotle: 4th century BC Believed the heart was the seat of intelligence and that the brain cooled the blood via its fluid filled ventricles Hippocrates: 4th century BC The brain is the seat of intelligence; observed soldiers with head injuries Galenus: 200AD Believed in Hippocrates bodily humors theory- Imbalance of one of four fluids (blood, phlegm, black and yellow bile) led to disease connected ventricles to body and was helped by bloodletting Vasalius : Dissected human cadavers and described characteristics of the brain Descartes: Dualism- Mind and Body Brain is a machine and fluid from the brain contracts muscles via the pineal gland Equipotentiality: One area of the brain can take over the functions of another if it is damaged defied Gall's theory that regions are static Proven by Jean Pierre Flourens via ablation studies Karl Spencer Lashley: When looking for the engram (location) of memories, they discovered that damage did not impact performance and instead memories are specific to a functional area of the brain Fritz and Hitzig (1890): Mapped motor cortex via electrical stimulation Ferrier and Munk (1900’s): ID-ed functional areas for vision, audition, and skin senses via ablation Structural analysis: MRI, tracer studies (biotinylated dextran amine-tracer) Functional Analysis: Electrophysiology, Brain imaging (PET, fMRI) Cell Theory: All life forms are made from one or more cells Must arise from pre existing cells cells are the smallest form of life Santiago Cajal: Used golgi method (silver nitrate) to view the architecture of the nervous system under a microscope Reticular theory: Everything in the nervous system is a continuous network with multiple nuclei in cytoplasmic continuity Neuron doctrine: Nervous system is cellular and each cell has a nucleus and its own membrane Retrograde: Back towards the soma via microtubules (dynein) Anterograde: Down towards the synapse via microtubules (kinesin) Axonal transport: Information travels on the microtubules in vesicles that are moved using kinesin (anterograde) and dynein (retrograde) that are proteins that walk along the microtubule Plasma membrane: Phospholipid bilayer with a positive charged hydrophilic head and a neutral hydrophobic fatty acid tail Intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations in resting state: Intracellular filled with potassium-more negative- These channels are only open. Diffuse out due to concentration gradient and back in because of electrical gradient Extracellular filled with sodium-more positive Diffusion rate: Depends on diameter of molecules or ions temperature of solution concentration gradient electric charges Potassium Equilibrium potential: membrane potential at which the net movement of K+ ceases (electrochemical equilibrium) Sodium-potassium pump: Final step of AP that causes 3 sodium to pump out and two potassium to pump in per 1 ATP that contributes to hyperpolarization and allows for a sustained ion gradient Neocortex: Sheet of neurons covering the brain that makes up 90% of cortex: Molecular (Lamina 1) External granular (Lamina 2) External pyramidal Internal granular internal pyramidal multiform White matter Microfilamints: Determine cell/neuron shape Made of actin Intermediate filaments: Stabilize cellular/neural structure Hold together neighboring cells Made of protein Keratin Microtubules: Tracks for moving proteins and vesicles within the cell Made from tubulin Unipolar: One process splits into two axons: one towards spinal cord and other to periphery common in PNS Multipolar: One axon and multiple dendrites Most motor and interneurons are multipolar Bipolar: Two processes: one axon and one dendrite on each side Less common-found in snesory organs Interneurons: Lie between sensory and motor neurons Resting K+ channel: Always op
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