Study Guides (238,380)
United States (119,754)
Psychology (131)
PSYC 3466 (17)
All (17)

Cognition [DETAILED NOTES] Part 2 -- I got a 4.0 in this course

31 Pages
Unlock Document

Northeastern University
PSYC 3466

1 Types of decision theories • Descriptive • Prescriptive • Normative Expected value theory • Choose the maximum expected value • EV = sum (probabilities X outcomes) pp. 481-482 10 Example • Gamble 1: (0.20, $40; 0.80, $0) • Gamble 2: (0.25, $30; 0.75, $0) • EV(G1) = 0.20 X $40 + 0.80 X $0 = $8 • EV(G2) = 0.25 X $30 + 0.75 X $0 = $7.50 Subjective values • Psychologically, value is defined by more than just the dollar amount – e.g., love, happiness, success – e.g., What’s worth $1000? Expected Utility Theory • Adaptation of expected value theory • Utility = subjective value •Maximize expected utility •Utility: •3=awesome •2=fine •1=bad EU = Sum (probabilities X utilities) pp. 481-483 11 Example • Carry umbrella (sunny, dry & burdened; rainy, dry & burdened) = (0.6, 2; 0.4, 2) • Leave umbrella (sunny, dry & unburdened; rainy, wet & unburdened) = (0.6, 3; 0.4, 1) • EU (Carry) = 0.6X2 + 0.4X2 = 2.0 • EU (Leave) = 0.6X3 + 0.4X1 = 2.2 Emotions and Decisions • Emotions disrupting reasoning, decision making – Popular conception – Examples • Emotions helping decision making? Clip - Phineas Gage’s impairments in emotion and decision making 12 Phineas Gage - 1848 • Iron rod through skull • Personality change: extravagant, antisocial 2 • Inability to plan or to hold a job • Compulsiveness, inability to inhibit, extravagant, antisocial, inability to plan or hold a job Gage’s brain • Bilateral damage to frontal lobes • Elliot: “a modern ‘Phineas Gage” • IQ, motor, and language intact (Damasio & Damasio, 1994) Elliot’s 2 major deficits • perm damage following brain tumor, like phineas gage, essentially exact same location of damage • Explains all the other apparent problems 1. Inability to make any decisions couldn’t make any decisions fast regardless if it matters-- made it impossible to hold down jobs 2. Inability to feel emotions hooked him up to heart and skin tests to measure emotion while being shown stressing pictures (disturbing pics)--- has no reaction when he sees this pictures--nothing on psychophysical level Elliot’s decision making • The reasoning process – Normal, intact, rational --lay out reasonable alternative patterns of thinking--its the last bit where he has to make decision that is difficult. • Making the decision – Unable to make the leap • Uncertainty – Final decision requires emotion (“gut”) Reasoning and emotion • Reason and emotion: both necessary in decision making •Antisocial personality Problem solving • Methods of studying problem solving • How do we solve problems? • Improving problem solving What is a problem? •Goal • desired or terminal state •Givens 3 • the constraints of the problem •Means (of transforming conditions) • ways to change the initial state (run medical tests to add to knowledge of the givens- how to get more info about patient-internally) •Obstacles • unique features of the problem that prevent a canned solution Problem solving? House, M.D. Image source: Fox.com2 Problem types • Well-defined – Four components are specified • Ill-defined – Not all components are specified text, pp. 388-389 Methods Studying problem solving: Data 1. Intermediate products 2. Verbal protocols (introspection) 3. Computer simulations 1. Intermediate products • Observe notes, actions, sketches •Not intrusive •observing what to do to solve the problem--jotting things down on a notepad as they think things through •sketches in a museum before the final product Sample problem • The trees in a peach orchard were arranged in a square array with N columns and N rows. To enlarge the orchard by one row and one column to make a larger square, the owner bought and planted 29 more peach trees. How many trees are in the orchard after the enlargement? 2. Verbal protocols • Think out loud (introspect) •Problems •more common in problem solving--asked to think out loud while solving a problem •analyze and decode transcript of what you say – Unawareness of mental process – Intrusive: may change process text, p. 388 Problem: Unawareness of mental process • Why? – No one mentions the word pairs (ocean+moon--> tide) – (claimed) Liking, familiarity, fame •Kids 4 • only kids dont know what goes on during problems? no Sock study • • look at 4 identical nylon socks, pick the best one • 4-1 preference to pick sock on far right, regardless of what sock it is • people don’t really know why they do things--not a good picture of how they get there (Nisbett & Wilson) Problem: Intrusiveness • Verbal report not part of the process Other motivators to change reports -- if they sound really logical and rational whole • time •you are interfering with normal thinking process--people dont always think out loud, the usual process is made weirder, intrusive, and different 3. Computer simulation • Obtain verbal protocols • Model this process -- carry out same steps on a computer • Output check – Human-like answers? if so human protocol was complete and accurate – Helps researchers double-check verbal protocols Newell & Simon • The problem solving process – Two parts: – Representation (pp. 402-405)-- mentally represent – Search through a problem space -- how youre going to seek out the answer (pp. 407-408) Why representation is important in problem solving • Eliminating irrelevant information (info that makes you take longer to solve the problem) • Helps us come up with solutions • Duncker’s monk problem 5 pp. 402-405 Duncker’s monk problem One morning a Buddhist monk sets out at sunrise to climb a path up the mountain to reach the temple at the summit. He arrives at the temple just before sunset. A few days later, he leaves the temple at sunrise to descend the mountain, traveling somewhat faster since it is downhill. Show that there is a spot along the path that the monk will occupy at precisely the same time of day on both trips. James Bond • What makes this character a particularly good problem solver? • No “mental set” – People tend to try applying old methods or representations that worked before. --people in a rut, only think of things as what you know--the crocodiles will eat me --we tend to try old methods first, if it works we keep doing it failing to notice new possibly better options (Study: Luchins) text, p. 400 Mental set text, pp. 400-401 Mental set •Example: functional fixedness • not being able to see alternate uses for an object • Candle problem (Duncker, 1945) text, p. 402 7 Mount a candle on a wall -- nobody thinks of using the matchbox as a shelf. 6 Strategies • Breaking out of “mental set” “Blicket” strategy a. if youre solving the candle problem, you give each item a nonsense name 2. Incubation 3. Practice 2. Incubation •Put problem aside for a while •not thinking about it when away from the problem – Don’t think about it consciously – Unconscious processing? – How does this break mental set? • Essential to creativity? (Cattell, 1971)-- you have to incubate--intuition says its important, but not much support in research-- how could you do that? • Or unsupported by research? (Browne & Cruse, 1988) text, p. 414 8 • Weakening mental set by: – Losing details (when you take a problem out of conscious working memory, let it sit in ltm, probably wont be able to retrieve some of the details) – Integrating memories -- own ltm background knowledge of problem – Activating new perspectives • Drawback: time -- takes an unspecified amount of time 3. Practice •Buzan’s “inherent creative capacity” • “paperclip”- write down as many uses as you can • 4 uses on average, and blah blah more uses in a minute, fewer people •List uses for an everyday object •if people did this before, they were better-- flexible thinking improves with practice also Torrance, 1966 Animal problem solving: Evolution of cognition? Question • Can non-human primates solve problems requiring mental representation and manipulation? – Examples: chimpanzees, crows, dolphins Problem-solving in animals New Caledonian crows •New Zealand -- captured in wild and taken to facility for experimental purposes •Abel is dominant, but betty is the “smart one” • Tool making -- make long sticks •Addition of new, improved features 7 •get better at tool making over time/practice, and pass on to children how to make the better tools • Teaching new features to others Demo: Making an oak tool (Betty) Source: A. Weir, Oxford U. Experimental question • Can the crows choose the correct tool just by looking at the problem? – Requires mental representation – Comparison of representations of problem and tool – e.g., mental problem solving ______Making a wire tool (Betty) Source: Weir et al. (2002) Deliberate or not? 17 trials with straight wire only • 7 discarded (dropped wire down tube) • Of the remaining trials: – Betty made a hook 9 times out of 10 – (Abel did not use hooks) Köhler’s (1927) chimp studies Typical conditions: • Enclosed area • Fruit out of reach • Various objects strewn around Sultan’s solution Source: Köhler (1927) Four-story solution: building upon prior insight 8 Source: Köhler (1927) Source: Köhler (1927) Nut cracking (Sherman & Austin) Language Research Center • Using rocks to crack nuts • Single-demo observational learning • Not taught Source: Georgia State Nut cracking by wild chimps • Tai forest, Ivory Coast • Nut cracking skills passed on from mother to infant – 7-year mastery • Force, accuracy, use of steady base 9 David Greybeard’s termite gathering tool JANE GOODALL-- was with chimps for 40 years • spent 40 years in wild, thinks it is unethical to treat chimps any different than humans because not many real differences Source: The Goodall Institute 6 Three major findings in chimpanzee problem solving: • Solved problems suddenly (not trial and error) • Once solved, could solve again with few irrelevant moves • Transferred solution to novel situations Studies on animal problem solving • Jane Goodall’s observations (film) • Are humans unique in having problem solving abilities, or are we simply at one end of a continuum? Creativity Definitions • The process of producing something original and worthwhile (Sternberg, 2003) – “Originality that suits some purpose” (Hennessey & Amabile, 1988, as cited in text, p. 413) --worhtwhile makes something challenging to it-- additional element ^ •Fluent, flexible, original thinking (relate to Buzan’s “paper clip” task) •FLUENT: how many solutions? •FLEXIBLE: how many distinctly different solutions •ORIGINAL: how different were your responses from other people’s? Creativity: Theories • direct from literature, then more recent views 1. Stages of creativity 2. Incremental problem solving 10 3. Problem finding 4. Creative personality 5. Propulsion model 1. Stages of Creativity • What cognitive processes are occurring in each stage (when solving a problem)? – Preparation: when youre looking at problem and gathering materials, getting background knowledge – Incubation: put problem into long term memory so you dont think so much about it, but at some point you think... – Illumination: eureka/aha moment-- when you realize you have hit upon a solution – Verification (via critical thinking; p. 417): critically thinking/rethinking your solution--is it actually a solution? 2. Incremental problem solving •The “nothing special” view • creativity is not just for a few special people • any creative individuals in history-- they just seem to work longer and harder on problem,more experience, finding more small problem solutions first-- may eventually get revolutionary idea, but based on the small steps • Great inventions – Solving a series of small problems – Use of ordinary cognitive processes text, pp. 415-416 3. Problem Finding •The solution itself: not creative • but have you represented the problem creatively? • Re-represent the problem creatively – Study: still life paintings (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1976) --took number of artists, put things together to make a still life- fruit etc- & artists could paint whatever still life they wanted-- picked out things to arrange & paint -> how long it took to set up vs how long to paint it -> the longer they took to arrange and represent what they were going to paint, the more creative the paintings were judged – ex homelessness-->probem of society, healthcare system, etc--dif solutions 11 4. The creative personality • “Either you have it or you don’t” • Barron (1988) –creative people... Questioning, risk taking, flexible beliefs, interest in other cultures / philosophies -- some people inherently more like this than other ppl • e.g Tarantino--> has these traits, films have influence from non-us or uncommon things • Dreaming and creativity – The dream-prone personality – Loosening of associations? • Stephen king, scientist-- took dreams and made them into a creative something else • if you dream creatively, source of creativity • open-mindedness, prone to daydreaming-> traits that predict creativity and ability to recall dreams • Has to do with loosing of semantic associative network-- connections in semantic network loosen up Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931 5. Propulsion model (Sternberg, 1999) • number of distinct ways to accomplish goals-- what are the commonalities in creativity • Proposes 8 types of creative leaders – Extending current paradigms (4) people who accept current ways of doing things (paradigms) but trying to extend them further – Replacing current paradigms (3) ppl who reject current paradigms and want to replace them with something different – Integrating existing paradigms (1) integrate what is already there Extending current paradigms •Replicators: replicate past successes-- novel because circumstances prevent them from doing it in the same way •(scary movie, then scary movie 2-- try to capture same thing, but make it different) Redefiners: new spin on existing renovation • 12 • (redesigning how to market something--bayer remarkets aspirin as a way to prevent heart attacks as opposed to helping a headache-- product has not changed) •Forward incrementors: go one step further in the direction the field was already going • (everyone expects it to happen, everyone knows there will be an ipad 4-- and its supposed to be better) •Advanced forward incrementors: going in same directions as forward incrementors, but try to go farther than the field is ready to go • (leonardo davinci drew up flying machine plans, but was way early; first ballet was boo’d and thrown fruit, but now people think its brilliant-- people werent ready; people who come into a company and change things too fast-- people typically behind and then it ends in disaster even if perfectly right) Replacing current paradigms •Redirectors • new direction (old computers were serial processors, converted all to parallel) •Regressive redirectors • reintroduced an old idea (formula for coke changed after taste tests, “classic coke” was brought back-- original coke at top sales) •Reinitiators • fresh start for the entire field (noam chompsky brings in new idea of innate-ness--> now entire field is reinvented, all questions are different) Integrating existing paradigms (still propulsion model) •Synthesizers • integrate good ideas from previous innovations (ereaders-- can have the ability on a computer, but then take that and put it into a kindle... or movies like kung fu hustle-- integrates elements from different things There are all different ways for YOU to be creative! Intelligence Definition: What is intelligence? • Study of individual differences – Cognitive abilities (intelligence) Theories • Historical – Single intelligence, unaffected by culture • Modern – Multiple types of intelligence, culture dependent Historical: Galton, 1883 •Intelligence as a function of psychophysical abilities 13 •Are you in tuned to your environment... do these things determine intelligence? -People evolve – Weight discrimination – Pitch sensitivity – Physical strength Historical: Binet, 1916 (English version) test to measure childrens mental ability (children in schools are not recognized as • needing more help--sped--eventually they dropped out, he was trying to help them and educate them for their needs) • test for ALL kids, equal chances, no kids being singled out • Help for mentally retarded children • Three elements, do they have: – Direction: know what needs to be done and how to do it? – Adaptation: apply prior knowledge (stategy) to a new task and adjust it for max effectiveness – Criticism: know how to self critique own thoughts and actions •Test output: mental age -- what level child is at and what they can learn IQ •Stern (1912) make comparisons between kids of all ages • • IQ = mental age / chronological age – Problems -designed for children (everyone over 16 ceiling’s out-- never get smarter) --now test is taken with lots of other people, and where is your score compared to other adult people who took it – IQ compared with population – Flynn effect -first published finding that every generation iq rises about one standard deviation 14 The Normal Curve Other problems • Binet’s test: purpose (to help kids) • Gould (1988) – Americans and IQ -- we ran wild wiht it unique to american culture, we measure and compare out intelligences to each other because we have a competitive culture – Immigration iq was used to bar immigrants from the country – Sterilization (eugenics) improve gene pool here by not letting certain people have children; instead of using it to help them but to sterilize them Modern: Cultural considerations • Kpelle tribe, Africa (Cole et al., 1971) • trying to teach them : Concept sorting task --nouns & verbs on cards and asked to sort in a way that makes sense --in us predicts how people will do in school – Hierarchical (high performance in school) vs. functional (poor performance) • all adults in tribe sorted functionally, tried to train them to sort hierarchically, couldnt chnge it, asked them to sort like a stupid person and THEN they sorted hierarchically • Importance of cultural context Other examples from Cole et al., 1971 in text, pp. 586-588 4 Culture and intelligence testing • NOT POSSIBLE TO CREATE Culture-fair tests • CAN CREATE Culture-relevant tests (relevant to one particular culture) – Not just language 15 – Kenyan kids--extensive knowledge of medicinal herbs, but american kids didnt – Brazilian street kids--sell things on street, cannot do 20-12, but can make the change on the street effortlessly-- can subtract in 1 context, not abstract context Modern: Williams’ test Favor’s kids in inner city, is the SAT testing vocab that is relevant to them? Which word is most out of place here? (a) splib (b) blood (c) gray (d) spook (e) black If you throw the dice and 7 is showing on the top, what is facing down? (a) 7 (b) snake eyes (c) boxcars (d) little Joes (e) 11 One intelligence or many? (text, pp. 542-545) • Historically: One intelligence – g, which stands for general intelligence --in study measured performance on range of tasks-> positive correlation per person; how well people do in a type of work tends to go together--> YOU CAN CALL A PERSON GENERALLY
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3466

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.