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Cognition [DETAILED NOTES] Part 1 -- I got a 4.0 in this course

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Northeastern University
PSYC 3466

Visual Memory▯ not just visual images▯ • • also connected to background knowledge ▯ supermemory: Luria’s “S”▯ • Super visual memory--> Studied S and wrote a book about him (1920’s)▯ • Luria studied a newspaper reporter in russia (for decades), had supergood memory, could memorize hundreds of digit strings, could recollect them 20 yrs later▯ • rich visual memory/imagery (puts numbers down and picks them up on his “walk”▯ • Makes use of Synesthesia▯ • All of his senses crossed▯ • Seemed distracted, but was able to use it to advantage with memory▯ • helped his memory▯ • Deficits: Agnosia▯ Agnosia▯ • Inability to interpret a visual stimulus, due to brain damage▯ • naming problem▯ • cannot name an object▯ • details intact▯ • can see the details of the object▯ (oliver saks’ the man who mistook his wife for a hat)▯ • • normal intellect▯ • When you see something, you construct a percept--- this is the inability to do so▯ • Kevin Chappell: example in movie▯ Copying▯ • Copying ability was good, but could not name objects▯ • cannot name, but can see, fine motor skills▯ • Lack of copying ability as well▯ • (copying task is good to differentiate btwn agnosia patients▯ • if a patient can copy, perception of visual info is intact, no motor problem, can control hand,▯ • if patient cannot copy (motor skills fine): perception disrupted▯ Free Drawing▯ • you have to visualize it in minds eye▯ • (person is unclear what img looks like)▯ anchor--> cannot free draw it, knows a definition when asked▯ • EXAMPLE▯ • What do these results mean?▯ • can copy: percet intact▯ • no motor problem▯ • can’t free draw: visual memory▯ • knows definition: visual memory may be dissociated from knowledge▯ • Recognition can be dissociated from visual memory▯ • Kevin: can free draw, cannot name object he just drew▯ • dissociation btwn visual mental imagery and perception▯ Feature integration▯ • patient was told to draw a man, then asked to point out parts▯ •knows what parts a man has, but has no idea where they are relative to each other▯ • cannot properly integrate the features▯ • people may recognize one feature (the dial on a telephone--sees that only)▯ • huge part of recognition--- see how things allign with each other▯ Prosopagnosia▯ • inability to recognize faces▯ • can use single feature, gait, voice▯ •person recognizes glasses, gait (how they move), voice-- dont recognize the face but use those to see the person▯ • single dissociation: maybe can recognize faces, but not objects and vice versa▯ • Lincoln Holmes: Does not recognize himself or any faces, uses other clues▯ Normal recognition process▯ normal face recognition: based on spatial layout of peoples faces▯ • •pick up differences implicitly▯ •mostly apparent when someone cannot pick up differences in faces (what the spatial differences are)▯ • Need Perception▯ •?▯ • Need Visual memory store▯ •?▯ • Connection between perception and▯ naming▯ •can you name it?▯ •Feature integration▯ •spatial alignment▯ • Is face recognition separate from object recognition? maybe!▯ Visual deficits▯ • Abilities lost in brain-damaged▯ patients▯ • Localization of function▯ • How the visual system normally works▯ ▯ Categories and concepts: Dividing up the world▯ Categories and concepts ▯ • Automatically assign individuals into groups▯ • Why do we categorize? ▯ •we find it annoying, we wish we didn’t BUT WE DO▯ • Without categories, we could not: ▯ •Function efficiently ▯ •Make predictions about new objects ▯ • wolf vs dog-- we can act accordingly▯ • Use our prior knowledge ▯ otherwise, you would waste time solving what every object is▯ • text, pp. 267-269 ▯ Concepts and categories ▯ • Definitions (review, p. 269)▯ • CONCEPT: an idea together with all of its associated information▯ • CATEGORY: the set of all individual examples that belong to a concept ▯ • Basic theories ▯ • Classical --> not current, but is influential ▯ Similarity-based (prototype, exemplar) ▯ • • Theory-based ▯ • Applications ▯ 1. The Classical Theory ▯ • Fish ▯ • [aquatic] ▯ • [water-breathing] ▯ [cold blooded] ▯ • • [animal] ▯ • [chambered heart] ▯ • Each concept consists of a set of features that are “Individually necessary, collectively sufficient” ▯ • Individually necessary- you must have each of the features to be considered a fish▯ • collectively sufficient- if it has all the features, it is sufficient enough to call it a fish▯ text, pp. 270-272 ▯ Problems ▯ 1. It’s hard to find definitions that work [for natural categories]▯ • Bachelor: “Unmarried male human adult” ▯ • definitions are too strict in classical view▯ 2. Strict definition -> Everything meeting it should be equally good category members ▯ • once something meets that full definition it should be as good in that category as everything else that meets the definition ▯ • Typicality effect: generally show people do not treat all examples (that meet the definition) as equally good examples▯ text, p. 271▯ Not every member of a category is an equally good member ▯ Typicality effects (p. 271)▯ Evidence: ▯ ▯ 1. Response times to categorize objects (smaller rt is faster)▯ • RT (robin) < RT (ostrich) ▯ • easiest birds to identify: robins and eagles, least identifiable as bird: ostrich and penguin▯ ▯ 2. Goodness-of-membership ratings ▯ • (e.g., next two slides) ▯ Typicality effects: Goodness of membership ▯ IMG▯ 2. Prototype view ▯ • ONLY ONE EXAMPLE FOR CONCEPT ▯ • Wittgenstein: ▯ • Concepts don’t have definitions ▯ Category members have a family resemblance ▯ • • SIMILARITY ▯ • dont have to look exactly the same to be in the same category (intuitively based)▯ • things that look similar, we will group together▯ text, p. 272 4 ▯ The prototype view of concepts▯ • Categorization is based on the object’s similarity to your prototype ▯ if you see a new object, you’ll compare it to prototypes of concepts stored, if it looks similar • to one, you will categorize it with that▯ • More similar -> faster categorization ▯ • Robin ▯ • prototype of bird looks most like a robin▯ text, p. 272 ▯ Prototypes can be: ▯ • prototypes can take different forms, they could be:▯ • Average of all examples in category▯ • Most frequent example you see▯ • Best example (what you consider the best)▯ • Ideal member of category -> doesn’t have to be a real member of category▯ Problems with prototypes ▯ Typicality effect for well-defined categories ▯ • • must be a number of items that don’t fall into either or▯ • “odd numbers” (Armstrong et al.; p. 277) ▯ • 269 versus 371 ▯ • 371 was considered more odd▯ • there are gradations of how good an odd number is▯ • superficially looks better▯ typicality effects don’t mean there are fuzzy boundaries btwn categories, being based • on superficial looks▯ 3. Exemplar view ▯ • STORE ALL EXAMPLES OF CONCEPT▯ • Instead of similarity to prototype, similarity to specific exemplar ▯ • All exemplars stored in memory ▯ • Computational load problem ▯ • can we really match all new examples with old examples (and have all those examples?)▯ • ex: ambiguous chest xray (heart attack or less serious)- if patient seen before heart attack and superficially similar to this pateint, xray was read as heart attack▯ • drawing on superficial exemplar similarities▯ text, p. 277-278 ▯ 4. Theory-based view ▯ • WE CATEGORIZE Based on the theory organizing the concept ▯ • our category of animals are based on theories we’ve learned?▯ • Whale -> mammal ▯ • Bat -> mammal ▯ • both fit what we’ve learned of as a mammal▯ • Example ▯ • (these are things to take out of house on fire)▯ • Children, money, photo albums, pets ▯ • after told the category, find more examples?▯ Ad hoc category▯ • category created by you on the fly to reach a goal▯ Barsalou (1983) text, p. 279 ▯ ▯ Lay theories ▯ • Physics, biology, psychology ▯ • Social categories ▯ • Disorders and diseases ▯ ▯ – Why does it matter what theories lay people have about diseases? ▯ Compliance with treatment ▯ • Lay theories of hypertension predict people’s willingness to take their prescribed meds ▯ (Leventhal et al., 1980) ▯ Multiple categorization systems? ▯ • Prototypes, exemplars, theories ▯ ▯All may operate in tandem▯ Schemas & Scripts▯ For today:▯ • What are schemas, and how do they differ from scripts?▯ • How do schemas & scripts affect memory?▯ Schema▯ • A general knowledge structure used for understanding▯ text, pp. 255-257▯ Schema (frame) ▯ “makeover” frame▯ ▯ “Bill got an Oprah makeover and came out looking like a million bucks.”▯ More about schemas▯ • Default assumptions▯ ▯ – e.g., assume “before” is unstylish if unspecified▯ • Restrictions – e.g., “professional” can’t be a poodle▯ pp. 256-257▯ Illustrative examples: schemas in action▯ • TV commercials ▯ •Violate default assumptions▯ •Violate restrictions▯ •Create new schemas▯ •etc.▯ Schemas affect memory▯ • Bransford & Johnson studies ▯ •Brewer & Treyens study▯ ▯ The procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange things into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else, due to lack of facilities, that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one never can tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the materials into different groups again. They can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used again, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated.▯ (abridged; Bransford & Johnson)▯ If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong.▯ (Bransford & Johnson; text, pp. 365-366)▯ ▯ If the balloons popped the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends upon a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong.▯ (Bransford & Johnson; text, pp. 365-366)▯ ▯ Schemas generate expectations▯ • Study ▯ •Subjects asked to sit in an instructor’s office▯ •Tested on memory for the room▯ Results: Subjects used schema▯ • (Brewer & Treyens)▯ Scripts▯ • A type of schema▯ Sequence of events in time▯ • •Event is routine and stereotyped▯ pp. 257-258▯ Study (Bower et al., 1979)▯ • Subjects read story▯ •Activates script (e.g., restaurant)▯ • Contains various details, such as▯ •Color of waiter’s shoes▯ •That the waiter spilled water on someone ▯ • Results▯ Scripts influence memory▯ 1. Better recall of script-consistent events▯ • Whether or not they were in the story▯ pp. 257-258▯ 2. For script-inconsistent events, ▯ • Poor recall of script-irrelevant items ▯ Especially good recall of script-violating items ▯ • e.g., animated children’s films▯ • ▯ ▯ Animal communication and the evolution of language▯ Corresponding text: pp. 337-339▯ Two questions▯ 1. What is the difference betweenlanguage and communication?▯ 2. Can only humans learn language?▯ Language Universals▯ • Semanticity▯ • Arbitrariness▯ • Discreteness▯ • Duality of patterning▯ • Productivity▯ • Displacement▯ from Hockett (1963)▯ Semanticity▯ • Language signals are symbols that convey meaning (“dog”)▯ Arbitrariness▯ • Language signals don’t resemble what they represent▯ DOG, le chien▯ Discreteness▯ • Language signals are distinct, not continuous▯ DOG DOG DOG▯ LITTLE DOG BIG DOG▯ Bee Vervet Monkeys Semanticity y y Arbitrariness n y- not in the sense that there are dif languages Discreteness n y Duality of patterning▯ ? n Productivity limited n Displacement▯ limited n Duality of patterning▯ • Two patterns▯ ▯ – Whole-word symbols▯ ▯ – Made up of smaller units▯ • Phonemes, non-word morphemes (littles sound and root words)▯ • Phonology-- Rules for sounds▯ ▯ “Dog” but not “Dzg”▯ Productivity▯ • Creative use▯ • Comprehension also easy▯ • Within bounds of syntax (or grammar of language)▯ ▯ My dog grew "red of soiling his own yard, so he took up pole vaulting, much to the dismay of the neighbor.▯ (Whitney, 1998)▯ Productivity, cont’d▯ • New words▯ • Sarchasm: The gulf between the author of sarcastic wit and the person who doesn't get it.▯ • Suckotash: a dish consisting of corn, lima beans and tofu.▯ • Hindkerchief: really expensive toilet paper; toilet paper at Buckingham Palace.▯ Source: Washington Post4▯ Displacement▯ • Can refer to things that are:▯ ▯ – Not physically present▯ ▯ – Nonexistent▯ ▯ – In the past or future▯ ▯ ▯ Harriet Beecher Stowe and Frederick Douglass▯ Animal communication▯ • Do we share any language universals with other animals?▯ •Honeybees▯ • Vervet monkeys▯ Dancing honeybees▯ •how does it signal to other bees (angles indicate, rotate the same degree clockwise as where feeding place is, faster dancing means more food, also info for distance)▯ Source: Whitney, 19985▯ Vervet monkeys▯ • Several call patterns to communicate about predators (Cheney & Seyfarth)▯ • Different responses▯ ▯ – Eagle (run down the trees), Leopard (run up into the trees), Python (look in the grass on hind legs)▯ • no matter where the vervets are, always same genetically identical calls (different countries)▯▯ Language Universals▯ ▯ Two questions▯ 1. What is the difference between language and communication?▯ 2. Can only humans learn language?▯ Alex the parrot (film clip)▯ • Could tell Color, shape, number, can ask for tickle, knows shower▯ aged to 31, died when trying to make sentences-- we’ll never know▯ • Source: Discovery Channel▯ Vocal tracts▯ impossible for chimps to make the same vocal sounds as humans because physically • their vocal tracts are different▯ Source: Whitney, 1998▯ Other solutions▯ • Modified ASL▯ • Lexigrams (artificial symbol system)▯ • Spoken English recognition▯ Simplified ASL▯ •Washoe, Nim Chimpsky▯ •me drink, me banana, me cookie ▯ •“give orange me...” longest sentence▯ •Criticisms▯ •overly accepting of ASL by chimps (more likely scratching butt then making sign)▯ Video: Washoe the chimp▯ • raise a chimp from birth, maybe then learn language through environment (Washoe)▯ • got to level of 2 year old, and could never get past that. ▯ • generalized across objects▯ Lexigrams▯ • Lana, Austin, Sherman, Kanzi▯ ▯ Lana▯ • First chimp to learn lexigrams▯ Abilities and limitations▯ • • used a rewards system (Operant cond) ▯ • language was semantic, arbitrary, discrete so first to form grammatical sentences, recognize written arbitrary symbols, and with them could read▯ • is there deep conceptual meaning?▯ • Always tricked- couldn’t figure out things that were switched around▯ Rewards are important▯ • Sherman and Austin- spent all time together▯ •Associate pairing alone didn’t work- 1year later didn’t learn still▯ •once they got rewards learned instantly (actually receive the orange when picking the picture)▯ Lexigram study▯ (Sherman & Austin)▯ Understanding spoken English▯ •Kanzi (later also Panbanisha and Panzee)▯ •headphones on Kanzi, someone reads him word from dif room, raises hand when ready, then chooses picture from 3 that corresponds to word heard through headphones▯ •near 100% accuracy for words in vocab (3000 english words)▯ •first to learn a lot of this without formal training▯ •was young while they trained his mother▯ •picked up meanings etc unknowingly while mom was training (she didnt get it)▯ •no rewards needed▯ •recognizes 350 lexigrams▯ • Early exposure, no rewards▯ Rearing or species effect?▯ • Kanzi is a bonobo (pygmy chimp)▯ • New animals, no rewards▯ ▯ – Panbanisha (bonobo) & Panzee (chimp), in space with Kanzi▯ • why did konzi learn? maybe because hes a dif species--bonobo, or exposed early?▯ Results▯ •Both: picked up language competence (without rewards)▯ •ealry exposure is important▯ •But Panzee lags in learning▯ •bonobo panbanisha learned lexigrams faster, sooner, and overall more than panz▯ •panzee needed slower more clear spoken word recognition▯ •panzee better at cognitive tasks (mazes and puzzle solving) than either bonobos▯ • Conclusion?▯ Recap▯ 1. What is the difference between▯ language and communication?▯ 2. Can only humans learn language?▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Which came first, language or thought ?▯ Corresponding text: pp. 375-379▯ Language Thought? ▯ 1. Whorfian hypothesis (lang, then thought)▯ 2. Piaget: Thought comes first (first thought, then lang to express thought)▯ 3. Or, do they influence each other simultaneously? (maybe same time but close relationship)▯ Whorfian hypothesis ▯ • Strong (linguistic determinism): ▯ ▯ – Language DETERMINES thought ▯ • Weak (linguistic relativity): ▯ ▯ – Language AFFECTS thought ▯ Color perception ▯ (Kay & Kempton, 1984) ▯ • English vs. Tarahumara (north mexico, distinct) speakers ▯ ▯ – Blue/Green vs. Siyoname (entire spectrum)▯ •Perception of color at blue-green boundary (does perception change without different vocab)▯ •language you speak can have influence (tarahumara speakers thought 2 in boundary were most similar, and technically they are more similar in wavelengths)▯ Language -> Thought ▯ Math ▯ • in English vs. East Asian languages▯ •english speakers fall behind at double digit math▯ • does language influnce math?▯ •34 + 12▯ • three 10s four plus one 10 two equals four 10s six ▯ • thirty-four plus twelve equals forty-six ▯ Language -> Thought ▯ Bilingualism ▯ English-Chinese bilinguals read personality descriptions (in english or chinese)▯ • use stereotype words, easier label personalities, but nly stereotype in one language or the •other (not both)▯ given descriptions of people WHO ARE these words, and then asked to make up stories • about them▯ • if they read in particular story in the stereotyped language (artistic story read in english) more stereotypes used in story, if in translated language (artistic description in translated chinese) it was more neutral AND REVERSE▯ ▯ – “Artistic”▯ ▯ – “Shi gu”▯ • Stereotype activation depended on the language read ▯ Language -> Thought▯ Counterfactual thinking (Bloom, 1981)▯ • English (more marking of counterfactuals -what if statements that arent true) vs. Chinese ▯ • Only English marks counterfactuals: ▯ • “If he had not missed the bus, he would not have lost his job.”▯ • he lost his job, he missed the bus!▯ • Is thinking affected? ▯ Language -> Thought ▯ Study ▯ ▯ – “A European philosopher named Bier would have been able to contribute to philosophy ▯ in a variety of ways had he been able to read Chinese.”▯ ▯ – Did Bier actually make the contributions?▯ • English speakers: 98% correct▯ • Chinese speakers: 7% correct▯ However… ▯ • Methodological flaws in Bloom (1981)? ▯ • Au (1983, 1984) ▯ ▯ – The Chinese translation was poorly done (not understandable)▯ ▯ – Fixed translation ▯ ▯ – Language difference disappeared ▯ • now systematic techniques for translation (translate, then another person translate back to see if matched)▯ • counterfactuality can happen in thought without grammatical markings▯ How thought -> language ▯ • The opposite view ▯ • Piaget (developmental literature)▯ • Evidence: Commonalities in languages ▯ Focal color inclusion (Berlin & Kay, 1969)▯ • fewer words for colors start on left end ▯ • (2 color words, white & black, 3- w, b, & red, etc)▯ Thought -> Language ▯ Basic shape names ▯ same- fewer shape words start on left side, just circle & square, then add others)▯ • Thought -> Language ▯ Word order ▯ • Subject Verb Object (english-john ran home): 44% ▯ • SOV (korean): 35% ▯ • VSO (fiji): 19% ▯ • VOS, OSV, OVS: very rare ▯ Thought -> Language ▯ Kinship terms ▯ • Generation of person▯ • Blood relationship btwn people▯ Gender of person▯ • • these characteristics are useful about a person, so they evolved in language▯ Thought -> Language ▯ Universals in Metaphors ▯ • From shared physical experiences ▯ • Happy/Sad to Up/Down (cheered me up, feeling down/fell into a depression)▯ • More/Less to Up/Down ▯ •share experiences of pebbles in a pile-- more pebbles pie goes up▯ • Future to Up, Ahead ▯ •eyes look up ahead▯ Thought -> Language▯ Vygotsky’s view ▯ • Initially independent -language first until...▯ • From age 2: Mutual influence▯ • Eventually, thought = internal language ▯ Thought Language ▯ Reinterpretation of egocentric speech ▯ • Before thought becomes inner speech (thinking and speaking almost the same, think out loud)▯ Bidirectional influence (Meltzoff & Gopnik)▯ Source: PBS (NOVA) ▯ • piaget- first babies need to develop cognitively then can speak, vygotsky says first babies talk then cognitive▯ • babies use words with meaning just as they start solving cognitive problems▯ evolve same time, thinking helps them use the words▯ • • language and thought help each other▯ Thought Language ▯ Final note: Language | Cognition? ▯ • To some degree, language and cognition may be separable ▯ Williams syndrome ▯ • LANGUAGE AND COGNITION DONT HAVE TO GO TOGETHER▯ • rare genetic disorder▯ one group of genes on one copy of chromosome 7 is missing (as am embryo)▯ • • child ▯ • Rare genetic disorder ▯ • Calcium regulation problem ▯ • all types of growth stunted (mental/physical)▯ • Very low IQ (40s/50s)▯ • cannot tie shoes, add numbers, take care of themselves, ANYTHING▯ Language is preserve
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