Test Two Reivew.docx

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SOCL 1101
Shelley Mc Donough Kimelberg

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Nicole Hicks Sociology 1101 -- Exam Two Review -- Human Capital can explain a lot of inequality -- education, skills (general or workplace), time on the job Social Control/Deviance  Look at formal vs informal deviance, and how deviance definition changes over time (sanctions, both informal and formal try to avoid deviance)  Durkheim, functionalist, studied suicide << why there are different rates of suicide among different groups o Two factors: Integration, and Regulation = suicide predictors o Egoistic Suicide-- little attachment to your society (like Protestants have higher rates than Jews) o Anomie/Anomic Suicide -- aimlessness. No rules/regulations at all  Strain Theory = a way to explain deviance -- Merton -- society gives these goals for everyone in society, but not everyone has equal opportunity to achieve these goals (leads to deviance)  Deviance Theory = .... and *******people create/enforce laws that let people keep their top-power positions  Symbolic Interactionist Theories o Broken-Window Theory - all about how people interpret the environment they're in --- put the car out with graffiti, garbage, broken windows, and people were way more likely to act defiantly (environment tells observer that disorder is okay, and you can do whatever you want) o Labeling Theory (when talking about deviance) - looks at Primary deviance (first act) and Secondary deviance (what happens after people respond to the initial act, like if they label you as a terrible person or just a kid messing around)  What has happened to incarceration rates in the US over time? (Skyrocketed to never-been-seen levels recently, doesn't match trends...) -- WHY. It's an American thing, either because of the War on Drugs (imprisonment for minor crimes, for far longer) and changes in sentencing rules (now mandatory sentence triggers for certain crimes) and moving away from gov't responsibility to private, who want the $$ Stratification - how society decides who gets what, puts us in a hierarchy  Social mobility -- movement (or lack thereof) between classes o Class vs. Caste Systems o Intragenerational mobility(mobility within the same person) vs Intergenerational (mom is X, kids become Y) o Structural mobility********** o Exchange mobility**********  Theories of stratification o David and Moore (functionalist) -- Certain jobs are more important to the function of society. So we need to incentivize these jobs, aka pay more. Inequality makes sense, because no one would go to school to be a brain surgeon if they'll earn the same as a janitor -- meritocratic. Although it assumes everyone starts at the same place, which isn't quite true o Marx (marxist) -- All about economic class, division of labor. Controlling owners vs. workers. UNSTABLE because eventually the workers will rise up and fight back, screwing over Capitalism. The system is rigged because people are forced over to this model where they are under the bourgeois. But we don't just have two classes... o Weber -- complex view... it's not just about class, Marx; it also includes status, power, authority. His ideas led to the idea of socioeconomic status (SES)  People have different goals when they say "equality" -- Equality Of... o Opportunity (play by the same rules) -- run the same distance o Condition (start at the same place, and play by the same rules) -- run the same distance/start together o Outcome (make sure the end result is the same for everyone) -- AND have everyone cross the finish line together Gender  Gender is the social meaning attached to your sex, which is the biological stuff  Gender identity = ****************  Gender role = society expectations/norms associated with your sex/gender  Intersectionality = Our gender identity intersects with other identities, like age, race, SES -- it's different to be a white lesbian poor teen than a black hetero wealthy woman  "Doing gender" is how you live your gender on a day-to-day basis. A bit symbolic interactionism. Gender isn't a fixed category, it is a process that we act in every day, either confirming or challenging it, in different settings  There are in
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