BIOL SCI 215 Study Guide - Spring 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Gene, Protein, Dna

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BIOL SCI 215
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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4/3 Introduction to Genetics
20,000 genes in the human genome
Two main branches
oProkaryotic cells
Bacteria
Unicellular
“Bag of molecules”
oEukaryotic cells
Plants, animals
Unicellular or multicellular
Focus on nucleus, mitochondria, etc.
Proteins are a linear sequence of polymers called amino acids
oFormed through the dehydration reaction
o20 different amino acids, each have particular R group thus giving them
varied chemical properties.
oThis is the reason why proteins can carry out different functions
Proteins fold into 3-D shapes
o3-D orientation + amino acid sequence leads to varying chemical properties
Proteins perform complex functions due to high chemical complexity
Enzymes catalyze particular chemical reactions by bind to subspecific area
oProtein binding to another protein
oProtein binding with specific DNA sequence
Most cellular functions are performed by proteins
oMotors move along scaffolds to transport materials within the cells
oReceptors allow for communication between inside and outside of cells
Mutation in dynamin gene → sequence change in dynamin protein (now slightly
unstable as high temperature unfolds) → neuron communication requires dynamin
Lower temperature leads to restoration of synaptic connection
Model organisms allow rapid identification of gene functions relevant for mammalian
biology → hippo gene in fruit flies is a common gene used for suppression of tissue
growth
oIdentification of gene led to a discovery of control of growth in humans and
animals
Have to start learning inheritance first before understanding mechanism as
transmission of disease
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4/4
Blended inheritance idea
Traits could blend together in a fluid fashion
Idea pre-dated Mendel, traits blend in each generation
Why was Mendel successful?
1. Used a good model organism
1. Pea plants grown and analyzed in large numbers and several varieties had
been found
2. Have good offsprings
3. Easy to grow
4. Plants can cross-fertilize or self-fertilize
1.1. Plant gametes: Pollen (Male) + ovule (female)
1.2. Self: Can occur with a brush or a bag - transfer pollen to
stigma which leads to progeny and plant grows into an adult
1.3. Cross: Transfer pollen from one plant to another by removing
anthers of the other plant → progeny → adults
2. Examined “discontinuous character traits”
1. Two distinct phenotypes: appearance/characteristic or trait that can be
measured
2. True-breeding strains / Pure-breeding strains/lines
1. Cross it with itself and same population and the generations would be the
same
2. Wrinkliness or roundness of a pea
2. Quantified the data
1. First breeding: F0/P(parental generation) - Pure breeding of round and pure
breeding of wrinkly leading to the first generation (F1) being round peas
2. These round peas self fertilize and this leads to F2 being round:wrinkly (3:1)
Mendel builds a model by:
1. Defining players: Round pea gene having 2 alleles: R and r - round = R and wrinkly =
r
1. Homozygous - same allele such as rr and RR
2. Heterozygous - different allele = Rr
1.1. Only one of the alleles is typically “expressed” ==
shown/displayed
1.2. This is denoted by dominant and recessive
1.3. [taken as an assumption till later chapters]
2. Need an experiment to determine whether alleles are dominant or recessive
3. You can only know by looking at the phenotype of heterozygotes
F0 or P: RR x rr
P gametes: 100% R, 100% r
F1: Rr x Rr
Mendel’s first law
Adults have two versions of each gene (allele)
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