BIOL SCI 217 Midterm: 1

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bnportant topics Elon -
-¥¥h%?onou+
.Advantages and Challenges of Ktp I
multicellularity and specialization
Ek=6÷log¥uty
homeostatic Control osmolarity can describe
two solutions reciprocally
tonicity always describes
Solution relative to the
membrane permeability an
if acell b
qq.yolaanritya.EE permeable
.Membrane Channels ammonia't
ETFs to Kt and Nat ,
the cell ...you need
passive And Active transport Tomita
:tFYa* .will be Somewhere
concentration between
concentration gradients .
ion flow across acell
Membrane is subject to
the permeability of the
Osmosis and Tonicity man
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Is
Acting on the con
aionic And Osmotic equilibrium the equilibrium potential
Eqmlliquabfionm
potentials and Nernst
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equal and opposite
The resting membrane potential (Werst )
Membrane potentials Harmed
ask.ir?nriumwei9oI#aes
for all permeant icry
.Goldman Equation Fine
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Tama
:* ,f- m=6Hog%p{FY!f¥
Graded Potentials are
(usually )pre
-
Local current flow wmiggnmemmho.no 3mi '
potential that vary in
Conduction distance is
Graded potentials Yi%TaeEntire 'damnably
.PnMIsjTm¥m,2k¥
flow through neurons to Rc
current ,voltage ,conductance ,
resistance
Kin -
-Kgoes
Action potentials result from in
aNa "
Channel Cycle threshold -and -greater membrane
potential Changes at the trigger
Zone .under normal
.refractory periods coaondinottiounasgauhonamotpmei
:L
An action potential is propagated
Action potential propagation doawxfntmauetobngthuodustsihhe
activation of Voltage -
gated
.conduction speed ion channels
-Myelin and saltatory Conduction the double gated feature
of voltage-gated Nat
.types of synapses a. EFiennes
Pantomiming
Rc back toward the trigger zone
IRc 9pm -
-longer distance
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Neurotransmitters when action potential
reaches the axon terminal
,
the electrical signal is
.Caz-1 regulated exocytosis /Vesicular translated into achemical
release Fyffe
the neuronal
aSynaptic integrationIfiring Apostsynaptic cell 's
response to Neuro crenel
.Sensory transduction neurotransmitter is determined
by the population of receptors
expressed on the post synaptic
frequency coding an membrane
An EPSP on post
Touch receptors synaptic an
AT more
Stimulus modality ,intensity ,and likens
Adaptation An IP in post
synaptic cell
.receptive fields
-Aei
;
.basic anatomy of brain And
summation of post
spinal cord Iventricles
synaptic potentials at
Structures And function of the the trigger gone
determines whether
Cerebral cortex an AP will initiate
-e
or
rnos
g
inversely
proportional
*
Action potential
,
peg
,
stand
w
higher
NAP
Precondition
speed
µ
diameter
§
resistant
8.
is or
zeroes
affected by woot
&til
axon diameter (related to RD
to
qresi stance dependent
Mope
tunnels
to
#2) resistance of the membrane (Rm)
&0doper channels higher membrane resistance :
is8fastecfn.az
-E3) delayed opening of voltage
FEE
gated channels Ap are powerful
dbut slow
passive current flow significant loss of signal over
IS fast &does not q
Short distances in unmyelinated axons
rely on opening of voltage gated Channels
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