[LOC 211] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (21 pages long)

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LOC 211
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 1
What is a theory?
-lack of consensus about what a theory is
-theory must contain logic — what casual arguments are being adopted
-data explains WHICH patterns were observed and theory explains WHY patterns were
observed
-theory just explain why variables or constructs come about or why they are connected
diagrams can explicitly delineate patterns and casual connections, but they rarely
explain WHY the proposed connections are observed
-hypotheses are statements about what is expected to occur not why it is expected to
occur
theory - set of interrelated constructs, definitions, and propositions, that present a
systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the
purpose of explaining and prediction phenomena
WHY acts, events, structures, and thoughts
What is an organization?
organization - social structure created by individuals to support the collaborative pursuit
of specific goals
-organizational characteristics
1. more than one person
2. shared/common goal
3. some type of power/coordination/control methods
4. defined structure
-frames
1. structural
2. human resources
3. political
4. symbolic
-when something is framed as a loss, people are more likely to act
-framing question/view changes what we see
Lecture 2
Integrated Model of Teamwork
-How do you measure success?
team objective
individual growth
team well-being
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-team performance equation
PP + SG - PT = AP
PP - potential productivity
SG - synergistic gain
PT - performance threats
AP - actual productivity
Performance threats
-process loss
1. interpersonal
-Type A conflict
-Type C conflict
2. coordination/communication
3. motivation/effort
Abilene Paradox (mismanagement agreement) - groups often agree to a course of
action that none of them wants because each member assumes that the others want it
common information effect - groups tend to spend too little time discussing unshared
(unique/uncommon) information
-discussing information we share feels good
-members are judged as more task competent and credible after discussing
shared instead of unshared information
-shared information is judged as more important/accurate
illusion of transparency - we’re much better at hiding our feelings than we think we are
-make sure we’re sharing all of our information
(ex: tapping exercise)
curse of knowledge - we are unable to disregard knowledge already processed
-direct vs. indirect
Minimize coordination loss
-revisit collective “assumptions” regularly
-team leader is information manager
increase focus on unique information
-suspend initial judgement
-frame as information sharing problem rather than a judgement to be made
Process-loss motivation
-social loafing
diffusion of responsibility
dispensability of effort
sucker effect
-minimize motivation loss
1. increase identifiability
2. promote involvement
3. strengthen team cohesion
4. maintain the ‘right’ staffing level
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