POLI SCI 220- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 36 pages long!)

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POLI SCI 220
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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4 views of the Constitution
1. A philosophical document
2. An ‘agreement with Hell’ (William Lloyd Garrison)
3. Economic self interest (Charles Beard)
4. Political, not philosophical (Roche)
Dahl: is Americans’ reverence for the Constitution warranted?
Democratic deficiencies of Constitution rooted in necessity of federalism
Senate (living in California vs living in Nevada)
Slavery
Electoral college
Suffrage
However, sees recognition of states as political units as both inevitable and
desirable in the United States
Call for a new constitutional convention?
The Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise
House: by population
Close to the people
Direct election and 2 year term
Senate: 2 per state
More distant from the people
Selected by state legislatures (until 1913) and 6 year term
Slavery
Madison: “the states were divided into different interests not by their difference of size,
but principally from their having or not having slaves”.
Count slaves as part of population?
Compromise
“Three fifths of all other persons”
Vague wording “an endeavor to conceal a principle of which we were ashamed” -
John Dickinson, Del.
Slave trade
National regulation of slavery?
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C= strong commercial policy
c= no commercial policy
S= pro slavery
s= anti slavery
Northerners:
Cs>CS>cs>cS
Southerners:
cS>CS>cs>Cs
Compromise: CS - policy with strong commercial language AND a provision permitting slave
trade. To win their most important preference, each side conceded something.
Anti-federalists:
Against ratification
Philosophical critiques
Human nature
Scale of political life
Representation
4 criticisms of Constitution
Strips power from people, places it in national government
President looks too much like a king
Standing armies a threat to peace/liberty
No bill of rights
Other issues
Politics: many anti-federalists were powerful political figures in their own states,
so feared losing their status if the national government became stronger
The Federalists
Federalist Papers written under pseudonym but actually Madison, Hamilton, Jay
85 short essays to defend constitution to people of NY
Single best guide to the thinking that guided the Constitution
But also remember these are propaganda
The fight for ratification
Bill of Rights: protection from government that every citizen has
Limits on Congress: no law est. religion, abridging freedom of speech, press,
assembly, right to petition government (I)
Limits on executive: may not infringe on right to bear arms (II), no quartering of
soldiers without consent (III), no unreasonable searches or seizures (IV)
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