POLI SCI 240 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Eisenhower Doctrine, Authoritarianism, Schlieffen Plan

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Groupthink
-Tendency of members in a group to reach consensus without full examination of the evidence
Group pressure
Desire to fit in
Avoidance of conflict (among peers)
-Tipping point
Beyond a critical level, the entire group switches quickly to that position. This does not
have to be a majority
-The power of hierarchy
The boss calls the shots
Second face of power: Agenda setting power.
Subordinates will not provide options that they believe will meet with disapproval
The Psychology of decision making and negotiation dynamics
In crises
Limited attention span, limited intake of extraneous evidence, particularly during
crises
Selective focus
Focus on one key area
Limited ability to concentrate for extended period
Other crisis behaviors
Assumption that opponent has more latitude
Compressed time frame
Belief that one only has limited time to reach a decision; the other actor is
assumed to face less time pressure. (you project on the other actor more
latitude than you feel is given to you).
Wishful thinking (best case scenarios)
General psychological traits in decision making
Cognitivive dissonance
The tendency or desire to reduce dissonance with existing beliefs (conflicting
information)
Liberalism:
Origins
Reaction to mercantilists
England, dutch republic. Mare liberum (16-17th centuries)
Adam Smith (wealth of nations)
Domestic:
Individual pursuit and collective good (the invisible hand).
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Specialization makes things better - helping others while helping oneself. Leads to
maximization of overall welfare
Laissez faire - limited government intervention in the market
Government intervention is often driven captured by special interests
States and individual calculus is similar
pursuit of state interest (spec in competitive sectors followed by trade maximizes mutual gains
International relations and trade from a positive sum game
Protectionism is counterproductive (often driven by special interests)
A democratic peace argument:
Monadic view.
Democratic states are always more peaceful compared with authoritarian system.
Reason Why authoritarian states are more belligerent:
Warrior elites
Dominant military industrial complex
Costs of war rolled over on population
Logrolling between elites vs. popular opinion (trading compromises back and
forth)
Do these conditions hold in some of the WWI belligerents.
Dyadic view
Democracies are more peaceful but only with other democracies
Similar norms
Respect for international law
Each country’s population exercises control over decision making
In a world of five, be part of three
Revised balance of power system
Maintain all five major actors
Secret alliances
Three emperors league. 1872.
Germany austria and russia
Renewed in 1881. German defensive support only curtail austria vs russia
Dual alliance with austria. 1879
Triple alliance. Germany, austria, italy, 1882. Curtail austria vs italy.
Entente with England, German if focused on the continent
Bismarck out of power by 1890
Further decline of turkish empire
Russia withdraws from 3 emperor league 1887 because of problems in the balkans
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