PSYCH 110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Habituation

63 views12 pages
CHAPTER(6
Three%types%of%learning%
Nonassociative%-response%to%a%stimulus%changes%in%the%absence%of%any%apparent%
associated%stimulus%or%event%
Habituation%-decline%in%responding% due%to% repeated%presentation% of%a%
stimulus%(getting%used%to%the%chatter%of%a%coffee%shop)
§
Sensitization%-increase%in%responding%due%to%repeated%presentation%of%a%
stimulus%(receiving%a%painful%stimulus%may%make%you%more%responsive% to%a%
loud%noise)
§
1.
Associative%- linking%two%stimuli,%or%events,%that%occur%together%
Classical%Conditioning%-stimulus%provokes%a%response%(smell%of%mom's%
perfume%makes%you% smile)
Unconditioned% Stimulus%(food)
®
®
Conditioned%Stimulus%(bell)
®
Conditioned%Response%(salivate)
®
Extinction
Spontaneous% recovery%
Stimulus%generalization
Stimulus%discrimination%
Rescorla-Wagner%Model:%strength%of%association%is%correlated%to%how%
unexpected% the%US% (food)%is%
Positive%prediction%error%vs.%negative%prediction%error
®
§
Operant%Conditioning%-an%action's%consequence%determines%its%likelihood%of%
being%repeated%
Reinforcement:%INCREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(chocolate%for%good%behavior)
®
Negative:%removal%(nagging%stops%if%you%clean%your%room)
®
Punishment:% DECREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(spanking)
®
Negative:%removal%(limited%driving%privileges%for%speeding)
®
Schedules% of%Reinforcement
Fixed%interval:%reinforcement%at%set%times
®
Variable%interval:%reinforcement%at%variable%times
®
Fixed%ratio:%reinforcement%for%certain%number%of%responses
®
Variable%ratio:%reinforcement%for%varied%number%of%responses
®
Partial%reinforcement%extinction%effect:%higher%persistence%of%behavior%
under%partial%than%under% continuous% reinforcement%(variable%ratio%and%
variable%interval%are%more%resistant%to%extinction%
§
2.
Observational%-acquiring/changing%a%behavior%after%another%individual%performs%it
Latent%learning%-learning%that%takes%place%in%the%absence%of%
reinforcement,%learning%simply%by%observing%(turning%a%steering%wheel%
turns% a%car)
Insight%learning%-solution%suddenly% emerges%after%a%period%of%inaction%or%
contemplation%("aha"%moment)
Modeling%-imitating%a%behavior%seen%in%others%
§
Vicarious%learning%- learning%to%engage%in%a%behavior%or%not,%after%seeing%
others% be%rewarded%or%punished% for%performing%that%action%
§
3.
CHAPTER(7
Memory:%encoding,%consolidation,%storage,%retrieval(
3%Types%of%Memory%
Sensory%
Very%brief%(1/3%of%a%second)
§
Large%capacity%
§
Visual%(iconic)%and%auditory%(echoic)%
§
Short-Term%Memory%
Brief%(20-30%seconds)
§
Small%capacity%(7%+/-2%items)
§
Useful%for%remembering%telephone%numbers
§
Increasing%STM:%chunking,%rehearsal
§
Working%Memory%(more%current%theory)
Phonological%loop:%speech,%words,%numbers
Visuospatial%sketch%pad%
Central%Executive%
Constant%communication%with%long-term%memory%
§
Long-Term%Memory%
Limitless%capacity%and%duration%
§
Explicit:%conscious,%declarative
Episodic:%one's%own%experiences,%has%context%(HS%graduation)
Semantic:%facts,%general%knowledge%(GW%=%first%president)
§
Implicit:%unconscious,% memory%without% awareness%
Classical%Conditioning:%associations%outside%consciousness% (learned%food%
aversions)
1.
Procedural%memory:%riding%a%bike%2.
Priming:%exposure%to% a%stimulus%influences%response%to%a%later%stimulus3.
§
Depth%of%processing:%shallow%or%deep%
§
Breadth%of%processing:%simple%or%elaborate%
§
Flashbulb%memories:%vivid%memories%for%when%you%first%learn%something%big%(9/11)
Mnemonic%devices:%categorical%clustering,%imagery,%method%of%loci,%acronyms,%acrostics
The%7%sins%of%memory%
Transcience:%memory%fades%over%time1.
Blocking:%inability%to%remember%needed%info2.
Absentmindedness:%lack%of%attention3.
Persistence:%remembering%something%you%don't%want%to%4.
Misattribution:%assigning%a%memory%to%the%wrong%source5.
Bias:%influence%of%current%knowledge% on%memory%for%past%events6.
Suggestibility:%altering%a%memory%because%of%misleading%information7.
False%memory%syndrome:% sometimes%induced%by%well-meaning%therapists,%people%will%
believe%false%things% about% themselves%
Amnesia:%losing%ability%to%retrieve%lots%of%memory%
Retrograde:%lose%past%memories%for%events,%facts,%people
Anterograde:%lose%ability%to%form%new%memories
CHAPTER(10
Emotion
Physiological%process%(heart%beating%fast)1.
Behavioral%response%(eyes%open)2.
Feeling%("I'm%scared")%3.
Mood%- diffuse,%long-lasting%emotional%states%that%do%not%have%an%identifiable%object%or%
trigger;%influence%thought%and%behavior%
Types%of%emotions%
Primary%- innate,%evolutionary,%adaptive,%universal%(anger,%fear)
Secondary%- blends%of%primary%emotions%(guilt,%shame,%remorse)
The%Limbic%System%- involved%in%motivation,%emotion,%learning,%and%memory%
Insula:%receives%and%integrates%somatosensory%signals%from%the%body%
Subjective%awareness%of%bodily% states%(feeling%hungry)
§
Amygdala:%processes%emotional%significance%of%stimuli%
Most%important%for%emotional%learning
§
Three%theories%of%emotion%
James-Lange%Theory:%people%perceive%specific%patterns%of%bodily%responses,%and%as%
a%result%of%that%perception%they%feel%emotion
Seeing%a%bear%>%heart%races%>%perceive%your%heart%racing%as%fear%
§
1.
Cannon-Bard%Theory:%information%about%emotional%stimuli%is%sent%simultaneously%
to%the%cortex%and%the%body%and%results%in%an%emotional%experience%and%bodily%
reactions%respectively%
Seeing%a%bear%>%separate%signals%cause%your%heart%to%race%and%you%to%feel%fear
§
2.
Two-factor%theory:%a%label%applied%to%physiological%arousal%results%in%the%experience%
of%an%emotion%
See%a%bear%>%makes%you%tremble%>%interpret%this%as%fear%>%you%feel%scared%
§
3.
Somatic%Markers%-bodily%reactions%to%emotions% (rapid%heartbeat%and% anxiety)
Facial%expressions%provide%adaptive%information
Eyes%show%emotion,%but%mouth%is%best%at%showing%happy%:)%or%sad%:(%
Display%rules:%rules%learned%through%socialization%that%dictate%which%emotions%are%
suitable%in%given%situations%
Guilt%protects%and%strengthens%interpersonal%relationships
Discourages%people%from%doing%things%that%would%harm%their%relationships
Displays%of%guilt%demonstrate%that%people%care%about%their%relationship%partners
Guilt%can%be%used%to%manipulate%
4%Essential%Qualities%of%Motivational%States%%
Energizing:%activate%behaviors%(a%desire%for%fitness%makes%you%want%to%go%running)
Directive:%guide%behaviors%toward%satisfying%specific%goals/needs%
Persist:%until%you%achieve%your%goals%
Strength:%depending% on%internal/external%forces%
Maslow's%Hierarchy%of%Needs
Incentives:%external%objects%or%goals%that%motivate%behavior%
Extrinsic:%external%goals
Intrinsic:%internal,%value%or%pleasure%
Extrinsic%rewards%can%undermine%intrinsic%motivation%
Self-determination%theory:% people%are%motivated% to%satisfy%needs% for%competence% and%
autonomy%
Extrinsic%rewards%may%lessen%intrinsic%value%because%such%rewards%undermine%one's%
feeling%he's%doing%something%for%himself%
Self-perception%theory:% people% are%seldom%aware%of%their%specific%emotions%
People%draw%information%about%their%motives% according%to%what%seems%to% make%the%
most%sense%
Self-efficacy:%expectation%that%your%efforts%will%lead%to%success%(set%goals%that%are%
challenging%but%not%overwhelming)
Theories%of%Motivation%
Instinct%Theory%-behavior%is%led%by% instinct
Arousal%Theory%-we%seek%an%intermediate%level%of%arousal%(Yerkes-Dodson%Law)
Drive%Theory%-we%are%born% with%certain%physiological%needs%and%when% these% needs%
are%not%met,%we%feel%a%negative%state%of%tension%
Goal%of%homeostasis:% equilibrium%
§
Drives%are%affected%by%incentives%
Time%since%reinforcement
Size%of%reinforcement
Quality%of%incentive
Delay%of%reward
Previous%experience%with%reward%
Midterm(2(Review
Saturday,%February%17,%2018
1:15%PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
CHAPTER(6
Three%types%of%learning%
Nonassociative%-response%to%a%stimulus%changes%in%the%absence%of%any%apparent%
associated%stimulus%or%event%
Habituation%-decline%in%responding% due%to% repeated%presentation% of%a%
stimulus%(getting%used%to%the%chatter%of%a%coffee%shop)
§
Sensitization%-increase%in%responding%due%to%repeated%presentation%of%a%
stimulus%(receiving%a%painful%stimulus%may%make%you%more%responsive% to%a%
loud%noise)
§
1.
Associative%- linking%two%stimuli,%or%events,%that%occur%together%
Classical%Conditioning%-stimulus%provokes%a%response%(smell%of%mom's%
perfume%makes%you% smile)
Unconditioned% Stimulus%(food)
®
Unconditioned% Response% (salivate)
®
Conditioned%Stimulus%(bell)
®
Conditioned%Response%(salivate)
®
Extinction
Spontaneous% recovery%
Stimulus%generalization
Stimulus%discrimination%
Rescorla-Wagner%Model:%strength%of%association%is%correlated%to%how%
unexpected% the%US% (food)%is%
Positive%prediction%error%vs.%negative%prediction%error
®
§
Operant%Conditioning%-an%action's%consequence%determines%its%likelihood%of%
being%repeated%
Reinforcement:%INCREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(chocolate%for%good%behavior)
®
Negative:%removal%(nagging%stops%if%you%clean%your%room)
®
Punishment:% DECREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(spanking)
®
Negative:%removal%(limited%driving%privileges%for%speeding)
®
Schedules% of%Reinforcement
Fixed%interval:%reinforcement%at%set%times
®
Variable%interval:%reinforcement%at%variable%times
®
Fixed%ratio:%reinforcement%for%certain%number%of%responses
®
Variable%ratio:%reinforcement%for%varied%number%of%responses
®
Partial%reinforcement%extinction%effect:%higher%persistence%of%behavior%
under%partial%than%under% continuous% reinforcement%(variable%ratio%and%
variable%interval%are%more%resistant%to%extinction%
§
2.
Observational%-acquiring/changing%a%behavior%after%another%individual%performs%it
Latent%learning%-learning%that%takes%place%in%the%absence%of%
reinforcement,%learning%simply%by%observing%(turning%a%steering%wheel%
turns% a%car)
Insight%learning%-solution%suddenly% emerges%after%a%period%of%inaction%or%
contemplation%("aha"%moment)
Modeling%-imitating%a%behavior%seen%in%others%
§
Vicarious%learning%- learning%to%engage%in%a%behavior%or%not,%after%seeing%
others% be%rewarded%or%punished% for%performing%that%action%
§
3.
CHAPTER(7
Memory:%encoding,%consolidation,%storage,%retrieval(
3%Types%of%Memory%
Sensory%
Very%brief%(1/3%of%a%second)
§
Large%capacity%
§
Visual%(iconic)%and%auditory%(echoic)%
§
Short-Term%Memory%
Brief%(20-30%seconds)
§
Small%capacity%(7%+/-2%items)
§
Useful%for%remembering%telephone%numbers
§
Increasing%STM:%chunking,%rehearsal
§
Working%Memory%(more%current%theory)
Phonological%loop:%speech,%words,%numbers
Visuospatial%sketch%pad%
Central%Executive%
Constant%communication%with%long-term%memory%
§
Long-Term%Memory%
Limitless%capacity%and%duration%
§
Explicit:%conscious,%declarative
Episodic:%one's%own%experiences,%has%context%(HS%graduation)
Semantic:%facts,%general%knowledge%(GW%=%first%president)
§
Implicit:%unconscious,% memory%without% awareness%
Classical%Conditioning:%associations%outside%consciousness% (learned%food%
aversions)
1.
Procedural%memory:%riding%a%bike%2.
Priming:%exposure%to% a%stimulus%influences%response%to%a%later%stimulus3.
§
Depth%of%processing:%shallow%or%deep%
§
Breadth%of%processing:%simple%or%elaborate%
§
Flashbulb%memories:%vivid%memories%for%when%you%first%learn%something%big%(9/11)
Mnemonic%devices:%categorical%clustering,%imagery,%method%of%loci,%acronyms,%acrostics
The%7%sins%of%memory%
Transcience:%memory%fades%over%time1.
Blocking:%inability%to%remember%needed%info2.
Absentmindedness:%lack%of%attention3.
Persistence:%remembering%something%you%don't%want%to%4.
Misattribution:%assigning%a%memory%to%the%wrong%source5.
Bias:%influence%of%current%knowledge% on%memory%for%past%events6.
Suggestibility:%altering%a%memory%because%of%misleading%information7.
False%memory%syndrome:% sometimes%induced%by%well-meaning%therapists,%people%will%
believe%false%things% about% themselves%
Amnesia:%losing%ability%to%retrieve%lots%of%memory%
Retrograde:%lose%past%memories%for%events,%facts,%people
Anterograde:%lose%ability%to%form%new%memories
CHAPTER(10
Emotion
Physiological%process%(heart%beating%fast)1.
Behavioral%response%(eyes%open)2.
Feeling%("I'm%scared")%3.
Mood%- diffuse,%long-lasting%emotional%states%that%do%not%have%an%identifiable%object%or%
trigger;%influence%thought%and%behavior%
Types%of%emotions%
Primary%- innate,%evolutionary,%adaptive,%universal%(anger,%fear)
Secondary%- blends%of%primary%emotions%(guilt,%shame,%remorse)
The%Limbic%System%- involved%in%motivation,%emotion,%learning,%and%memory%
Insula:%receives%and%integrates%somatosensory%signals%from%the%body%
Subjective%awareness%of%bodily% states%(feeling%hungry)
§
Amygdala:%processes%emotional%significance%of%stimuli%
Most%important%for%emotional%learning
§
Three%theories%of%emotion%
James-Lange%Theory:%people%perceive%specific%patterns%of%bodily%responses,%and%as%
a%result%of%that%perception%they%feel%emotion
Seeing%a%bear%>%heart%races%>%perceive%your%heart%racing%as%fear%
§
1.
Cannon-Bard%Theory:%information%about%emotional%stimuli%is%sent%simultaneously%
to%the%cortex%and%the%body%and%results%in%an%emotional%experience%and%bodily%
reactions%respectively%
Seeing%a%bear%>%separate%signals%cause%your%heart%to%race%and%you%to%feel%fear
§
2.
Two-factor%theory:%a%label%applied%to%physiological%arousal%results%in%the%experience%
of%an%emotion%
See%a%bear%>%makes%you%tremble%>%interpret%this%as%fear%>%you%feel%scared%
§
3.
Somatic%Markers%-bodily%reactions%to%emotions% (rapid%heartbeat%and% anxiety)
Facial%expressions%provide%adaptive%information
Eyes%show%emotion,%but%mouth%is%best%at%showing%happy%:)%or%sad%:(%
Display%rules:%rules%learned%through%socialization%that%dictate%which%emotions%are%
suitable%in%given%situations%
Guilt%protects%and%strengthens%interpersonal%relationships
Discourages%people%from%doing%things%that%would%harm%their%relationships
Displays%of%guilt%demonstrate%that%people%care%about%their%relationship%partners
Guilt%can%be%used%to%manipulate%
4%Essential%Qualities%of%Motivational%States%%
Energizing:%activate%behaviors%(a%desire%for%fitness%makes%you%want%to%go%running)
Directive:%guide%behaviors%toward%satisfying%specific%goals/needs%
Persist:%until%you%achieve%your%goals%
Strength:%depending% on%internal/external%forces%
Maslow's%Hierarchy%of%Needs
Incentives:%external%objects%or%goals%that%motivate%behavior%
Extrinsic:%external%goals
Intrinsic:%internal,%value%or%pleasure%
Extrinsic%rewards%can%undermine%intrinsic%motivation%
Self-determination%theory:% people%are%motivated% to%satisfy%needs% for%competence% and%
autonomy%
Extrinsic%rewards%may%lessen%intrinsic%value%because%such%rewards%undermine%one's%
feeling%he's%doing%something%for%himself%
Self-perception%theory:% people% are%seldom%aware%of%their%specific%emotions%
People%draw%information%about%their%motives% according%to%what%seems%to% make%the%
most%sense%
Self-efficacy:%expectation%that%your%efforts%will%lead%to%success%(set%goals%that%are%
challenging%but%not%overwhelming)
Theories%of%Motivation%
Instinct%Theory%-behavior%is%led%by% instinct
Arousal%Theory%-we%seek%an%intermediate%level%of%arousal%(Yerkes-Dodson%Law)
Drive%Theory%-we%are%born% with%certain%physiological%needs%and%when% these% needs%
are%not%met,%we%feel%a%negative%state%of%tension%
Goal%of%homeostasis:% equilibrium%
§
Drives%are%affected%by%incentives%
Time%since%reinforcement
Size%of%reinforcement
Quality%of%incentive
Delay%of%reward
Previous%experience%with%reward%
Midterm(2(Review
Saturday,%February%17,%2018 1:15%PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
CHAPTER(6
Three%types%of%learning%
Nonassociative%-response%to%a%stimulus%changes%in%the%absence%of%any%apparent%
associated%stimulus%or%event%
Habituation%-decline%in%responding% due%to% repeated%presentation% of%a%
stimulus%(getting%used%to%the%chatter%of%a%coffee%shop)
§
Sensitization%-increase%in%responding%due%to%repeated%presentation%of%a%
stimulus%(receiving%a%painful%stimulus%may%make%you%more%responsive% to%a%
loud%noise)
§
1.
Associative%- linking%two%stimuli,%or%events,%that%occur%together%
Classical%Conditioning%-stimulus%provokes%a%response%(smell%of%mom's%
perfume%makes%you% smile)
Unconditioned% Stimulus%(food)
®
Unconditioned% Response% (salivate)
®
Conditioned%Stimulus%(bell)
®
Conditioned%Response%(salivate)
®
Extinction
Spontaneous% recovery%
Stimulus%generalization
Stimulus%discrimination%
Rescorla-Wagner%Model:%strength%of%association%is%correlated%to%how%
unexpected% the%US% (food)%is%
Positive%prediction%error%vs.%negative%prediction%error
®
§
Operant%Conditioning%-an%action's%consequence%determines%its%likelihood%of%
being%repeated%
Reinforcement:%INCREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(chocolate%for%good%behavior)
®
Negative:%removal%(nagging%stops%if%you%clean%your%room)
®
Punishment:% DECREASE%likelihood%a%behavior%will%occur
Positive:% addition%(spanking)
®
Negative:%removal%(limited%driving%privileges%for%speeding)
®
Schedules% of%Reinforcement
Fixed%interval:%reinforcement%at%set%times
®
Variable%interval:%reinforcement%at%variable%times
®
Fixed%ratio:%reinforcement%for%certain%number%of%responses
®
Variable%ratio:%reinforcement%for%varied%number%of%responses
®
Partial%reinforcement%extinction%effect:%higher%persistence%of%behavior%
under%partial%than%under% continuous% reinforcement%(variable%ratio%and%
variable%interval%are%more%resistant%to%extinction%
§
2.
Observational%-acquiring/changing%a%behavior%after%another%individual%performs%it
Latent%learning%-learning%that%takes%place%in%the%absence%of%
reinforcement,%learning%simply%by%observing%(turning%a%steering%wheel%
turns% a%car)
Insight%learning%-solution%suddenly% emerges%after%a%period%of%inaction%or%
contemplation%("aha"%moment)
Modeling%-imitating%a%behavior%seen%in%others%
§
Vicarious%learning%- learning%to%engage%in%a%behavior%or%not,%after%seeing%
others% be%rewarded%or%punished% for%performing%that%action%
§
3.
CHAPTER(7
Memory:%encoding,%consolidation,%storage,%retrieval(
3%Types%of%Memory%
Sensory%
Very%brief%(1/3%of%a%second)
§
Large%capacity%
§
Visual%(iconic)%and%auditory%(echoic)%
§
Short-Term%Memory%
Brief%(20-30%seconds)
§
Small%capacity%(7%+/-2%items)
§
Useful%for%remembering%telephone%numbers
§
Increasing%STM:%chunking,%rehearsal
§
Working%Memory%(more%current%theory)
Phonological%loop:%speech,%words,%numbers
Visuospatial%sketch%pad%
Central%Executive%
Constant%communication%with%long-term%memory%
§
Long-Term%Memory%
Limitless%capacity%and%duration%
§
Explicit:%conscious,%declarative
Episodic:%one's%own%experiences,%has%context%(HS%graduation)
Semantic:%facts,%general%knowledge%(GW%=%first%president)
§
Implicit:%unconscious,% memory%without% awareness%
Classical%Conditioning:%associations%outside%consciousness% (learned%food%
aversions)
1.
Procedural%memory:%riding%a%bike%2.
Priming:%exposure%to% a%stimulus%influences%response%to%a%later%stimulus3.
§
Depth%of%processing:%shallow%or%deep%
§
Breadth%of%processing:%simple%or%elaborate%
§
Flashbulb%memories:%vivid%memories%for%when%you%first%learn%something%big%(9/11)
Mnemonic%devices:%categorical%clustering,%imagery,%method%of%loci,%acronyms,%acrostics
The%7%sins%of%memory%
Transcience:%memory%fades%over%time1.
Blocking:%inability%to%remember%needed%info2.
Absentmindedness:%lack%of%attention3.
Persistence:%remembering%something%you%don't%want%to%4.
Misattribution:%assigning%a%memory%to%the%wrong%source5.
Bias:%influence%of%current%knowledge% on%memory%for%past%events6.
Suggestibility:%altering%a%memory%because%of%misleading%information7.
False%memory%syndrome:% sometimes%induced%by%well-meaning%therapists,%people%will%
believe%false%things% about% themselves%
Amnesia:%losing%ability%to%retrieve%lots%of%memory%
Retrograde:%lose%past%memories%for%events,%facts,%people
Anterograde:%lose%ability%to%form%new%memories
CHAPTER(10
Emotion
Physiological%process%(heart%beating%fast)1.
Behavioral%response%(eyes%open)2.
Feeling%("I'm%scared")%3.
Mood%- diffuse,%long-lasting%emotional%states%that%do%not%have%an%identifiable%object%or%
trigger;%influence%thought%and%behavior%
Types%of%emotions%
Primary%- innate,%evolutionary,%adaptive,%universal%(anger,%fear)
Secondary%- blends%of%primary%emotions%(guilt,%shame,%remorse)
The%Limbic%System%- involved%in%motivation,%emotion,%learning,%and%memory%
Insula:%receives%and%integrates%somatosensory%signals%from%the%body%
Subjective%awareness%of%bodily% states%(feeling%hungry)
§
Amygdala:%processes%emotional%significance%of%stimuli%
Most%important%for%emotional%learning
§
Three%theories%of%emotion%
James-Lange%Theory:%people%perceive%specific%patterns%of%bodily%responses,%and%as%
a%result%of%that%perception%they%feel%emotion
Seeing%a%bear%>%heart%races%>%perceive%your%heart%racing%as%fear%
§
1.
Cannon-Bard%Theory:%information%about%emotional%stimuli%is%sent%simultaneously%
to%the%cortex%and%the%body%and%results%in%an%emotional%experience%and%bodily%
reactions%respectively%
Seeing%a%bear%>%separate%signals%cause%your%heart%to%race%and%you%to%feel%fear
§
2.
Two-factor%theory:%a%label%applied%to%physiological%arousal%results%in%the%experience%
of%an%emotion%
See%a%bear%>%makes%you%tremble%>%interpret%this%as%fear%>%you%feel%scared%
§
3.
Somatic%Markers%-bodily%reactions%to%emotions% (rapid%heartbeat%and% anxiety)
Facial%expressions%provide%adaptive%information
Eyes%show%emotion,%but%mouth%is%best%at%showing%happy%:)%or%sad%:(%
Display%rules:%rules%learned%through%socialization%that%dictate%which%emotions%are%
suitable%in%given%situations%
Guilt%protects%and%strengthens%interpersonal%relationships
Discourages%people%from%doing%things%that%would%harm%their%relationships
Displays%of%guilt%demonstrate%that%people%care%about%their%relationship%partners
Guilt%can%be%used%to%manipulate%
4%Essential%Qualities%of%Motivational%States%%
Energizing:%activate%behaviors%(a%desire%for%fitness%makes%you%want%to%go%running)
Directive:%guide%behaviors%toward%satisfying%specific%goals/needs%
Persist:%until%you%achieve%your%goals%
Strength:%depending% on%internal/external%forces%
Maslow's%Hierarchy%of%Needs
Incentives:%external%objects%or%goals%that%motivate%behavior%
Extrinsic:%external%goals
Intrinsic:%internal,%value%or%pleasure%
Extrinsic%rewards%can%undermine%intrinsic%motivation%
Self-determination%theory:% people%are%motivated% to%satisfy%needs% for%competence% and%
autonomy%
Extrinsic%rewards%may%lessen%intrinsic%value%because%such%rewards%undermine%one's%
feeling%he's%doing%something%for%himself%
Self-perception%theory:% people% are%seldom%aware%of%their%specific%emotions%
People%draw%information%about%their%motives% according%to%what%seems%to% make%the%
most%sense%
Self-efficacy:%expectation%that%your%efforts%will%lead%to%success%(set%goals%that%are%
challenging%but%not%overwhelming)
Theories%of%Motivation%
Instinct%Theory%-behavior%is%led%by% instinct
Arousal%Theory%-we%seek%an%intermediate%level%of%arousal%(Yerkes-Dodson%Law)
Drive%Theory%-we%are%born% with%certain%physiological%needs%and%when% these% needs%
are%not%met,%we%feel%a%negative%state%of%tension%
Goal%of%homeostasis:% equilibrium%
§
Drives%are%affected%by%incentives%
Time%since%reinforcement
Size%of%reinforcement
Quality%of%incentive
Delay%of%reward
Previous%experience%with%reward%
Midterm(2(Review
Saturday,%February%17,%2018 1:15%PM
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.