PSYCH 110- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 71 pages long!)

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PSYCH 110
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Definitions of psychology
- Psyche: soul/logos: study
- William James (1890): the science of mental life
- Textbook: the scientific study of mind, brain and behavior with the
ultimate ambition of effectively explaining the most important human
behaviors in real world contexts
o Mind mental states, thoughts and feelings and motives
o Brain enables mind; mind = emergent properties of brain
functions
o Behavior any overt action
Behavior and brain are observable but the mind is invisible
and the mental process can only be inferred
Eight Schools of thought
Structuralism
- The different parts of the body/ the brain etc
- Wilhelm Wundt, Edward Titchener late 1800s Germany. 1879 first lab.
- Based on the Mendeleev’s periodic table – he is interested in constructing
a table based on how the consciousness is formed and the structure of it
[basic elements just like the elements in chemistry]
- Relied on introspection, where it requires one to describe sensory
elements of experience in their most basic form
- Primary areas perception, sensory
Functionalism
- William James late 1900s Harvard, US
- Based on Darwin consciousness should be studied for its function, not
structure: what does it do and NOT what is it made of.
- Adaptation to one’s environment to our mental life and behavior
- How does the psyche create overt behaviour? How is the psyched
adaptive?
- Primary areas social, practical and higher order experience based on
evolutionary psychology
Gestalt
- Max Wertheimer early 1900s Germany
- Experience is not made up of finite components but rather the whole of
the experience is something indescribably different than the mere sum of
its parts.
- Combination of the social aspect, the personality etc etc where it makes
up the psyche.
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- For example, the structure of a car. You have the wheels, the engine, the
tires and it all combines to make a car. Without any part, the car cannot
work.
- Anti- structuralist
- Primary area: perception
Psychoanalytic
- Sigmund Freud 1900s Vienna
- Everything that we do (actions, personality, psyche) are all changing
unconsciously.
- Thought that behavior was determined by unconscious drives, and
affected heavily by childhood. Used dream analysis and free- association
to uncover unconscious desires and conflicts.
- Freud could diagnose where you were stuck in terms of stages based on
behavior. For example, if you are sucking your thumb at 30, you are stuck
at a certain stage.
- Primary area: personality development and psychopathology
Behaviorism
- Similar to Freud where he thought that consciousness was not worthy to
study
- John Watson, B.F. Skinner, Ivan Pavlov 1930s through 1950s
- Behavior should be studied as an end to itself, rather than as a means for
inferring mental processes or structures
- Behavior is changed by new behaviors.
- For example, how a dog salivates when it hears its food being poured into
its bowl
- Tabula Rasa
o the theory that at birth the (human) mind is a "blank slate"
without rules for processing data, and that data is added and rules
for processing are formed solely by one's sensory experiences.
-  If I can shape your behavior according to what I want you to be, then I
can create you to be the person I want you to be
- Primary area learning
*After behaviorism, the schools of thought moved on to the social aspect and
moral compass of psychology: Focusing less on self and more on how society
impacts.
Humanistic
- In conflict with Freud and Skinner
- Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers 1940s 1960s
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