PSYCH 110 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Active Listening, Eye Contact, Body Language

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Lauren Weissman
Intro to Psych
Exam 1 Study Guide
EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1
Research Methods
Goals and Canons of science
Goals
o description/prediction
o causal explanation/control
Assumptions
o Determinism: the universe is orderly, effects have causes
o Empiricism: importance of observation theories should be based on data not
intuition
o Parsimony: simpler is better
If two competing theories predict the same phenomena equally well
choose the simpler
o Testability: importance of falsifiability
No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single
experiment can prove me wrong (Albert Einstein)
Everyone is an intuitive psychologist; therefore, eeoe kos hat is tue aout hua
nature
Alien example:
1. Log distae elatioship hee oe peso thiks asee akes the heat go
fode ad the othe thiks out of sight out of id – oth of hih at e tue
The Scientific Method in Psychology
1. Observation of psychological association
2. Hypothesis of a relationship amount the variables
a. Variables: measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors of interest
(anything that varies)
b. Absence, fondness
3. Translation of the hypothesized variables into specifics
a. Operationalization: the concrete measurable or manipulable definition of the
variable of interest
i. Variable: fondness operations? How would you measure it?
1. Eye contact
2. Distance between each other
3. Body language
4. Facials
5. Active listening
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Lauren Weissman
Intro to Psych
Exam 1 Study Guide
6. Reported relationship satisfaction
7. Frequency of gazing, touching, eye contact, and smiling observed
in a lab setting
4. Choose a research format (many options)
a. Case study: an in-depth investigation of a single case (one participant, pair, or
group)
i. Pro: real like observation and rich description
ii. Cons: limited generalizability or inferences you can make about the
general population
iii. Case studies used for rare phenomena as well as for those that cannot be
ethically manipulated (serial killers, feral children, HM). Can be extremely
important in showing what is possible in our species, even if uncommon
b. Survey: question many participants concerning phenomenon of interest
i. Pros: real life, greater generalizability; wider variety of events
ii. Cons: self-epot iases, lak of isight, tests of hpotheses ae
correlational in nature
1. Correlation: an expression of the relationship between two
variables
2. Sign: positive or negative, reflects pattern of relationship
a. Positive: A increases, B increases temperature and
popsicle consumption
b. Negative: A increases, B decreases temperature and hot
coco consumption
3. Magnitude: can vary from 1 to -1 (1 = perfect positive, -1 = perfect
negative)
a. Absolute magnitude reflects strength of relationship,
larger = stronger (EX: r=-.87 is stronger than r=+.23)
4. Correlations can inform us about the nature of the relationships
between variables in the real world
a. EG: How does the absence relate to fondness? R=-.3
b. Correlation can never tell us about causation
i. A causes B increasing absence reduces fondness
ii. B causes A decreasing fondness increases
absence
iii. C causes both A and B: third variable problem
fiaial stess, oe pates dug addiction, etc.
causes both increased absence and decreased
fondness
c. Experiment: manipulation of variables in order to assess causal effects on other
variables
i. Pros: can draw causal inferences
ii. Cons: artificiality limited to certain topics
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Lauren Weissman
Intro to Psych
Exam 1 Study Guide
iii. Experimental Research requires manipulation of an independent
variable and measurement of a dependent variable (for absence could
use anyone who traveled for business truckers)
1. Independent variable: causal (XXX
2. Dependent variable
iv. Hallmark of an experiment is random assignment placing participants
into conditions randomly (no volunteers)
1. Why? So on average the comparison groups are the same all
other differences should logically be unrelated to the
manipulation (because random)
2. Manipulation of the IV is this the most likely cause of effect
3. If truckers who were randomly assigned to long routes vs day
routes showed decreased fondness for the romantic partners
could potentially conclude that XXXXX
d. Good research
i. Avoids confounds
ii. Avoids bias (experimenter or participant)
iii. Psychologically real
iv. Uses reliable and valid measures
v. Ethical
Avoiding Confounds
A good epeiet aoids ofouds – any alternative variable that could potentially
explain differences between groups
o EX: imagine a helping study where you hoped opt at whether people were more
likely to help others in the morning or evening, randomly assigned participants
to morning or evening sessions, and observed whether there were differences
when the morning vs evening experimenter dropped a file of paper and people
randomly assign the morning study were twice as helpful
What if Beyoncé was always the morning dropper and nick nolte your
eeig oe? Thats a ofoud
o Ways of avoiding confounds
Rigid control ee patiipats epeiee is otolled/idetial
except for your manipulation (possible and more frequent with
computers)
‘adol a as a oessetials as possile e.g. who the
experimenter is, order of dependent measure so XXXX
Avoiding Bias
A good experimenter avoids bias tries to correct for ways in which the experimenter
or participant could even unconsciously influenced the results to fit the hypothesis
Experimenter bias well document and often unintentional
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