BIOL 1400- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 74 pages long!)

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11 Oct 2017
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BIOL 1400
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SET 1
Cell Theory
Theory of biological organization, which has three tenets: all organisms are made up of one or
more cells; the cell is the structural unit of life; cells only arise from the division of preexisting
cells.
Basic Properties of Cells
1. Cells are Highly Complex and Organized
2. Cells Possess a Genetic Program and a Means to Use It
3. Cells are Capable of Producing More of Themselves
4. Cells Acquire and Utilize Energy
5. Cells Carry Out a Variety of Chemical Reactions
6. Cells Engage in Mechanical Activities
7. Cells are Able to Respond to Stimuli
8. Cells are Capable of Self-Regulation
9. Cells Evolve
Bone Cells (Osteocytes)
Toughest body cell systems, bound together by calcium and phosphate. Give strength, support,
and frame work to the body by enclosing organs in skeletal system.
Cartilage Cells (Chondrocytes)
Loose and flexible compared to bone cells. Present in large bones to help them bend/move
freely.
Nerve Cells
Found in brain and spinal cord, combine to form the nervous tissue.
Muscle Cells (Myocytes)
Rich in actin and myosin, have the ability to contract/relax providing movements.
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Epithelial Cells
Cells form covering layers of all the organs.
Secretory Cell
Form glands and secrete something important. Ex. Pancreatic cells secrete insulin.
Adipose Cell
Stores fat
Blood Cells
Red blood cells, white blood cells, thrombocytes (platelets)
Conductive Cells
Conduct electrical impulse from region to region (nerve cells, muscle cells)
Connective Cells
Connect other cells/tissues (bone cells, blood cells)
Glandular Cells
Produce enzymes/hormones (secretory cells)
Storage Cells
Stores materials like fat for later use (adipose cells)
Supportive Cells
Support adjacent cells (glial cells)
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Document Summary

Theory of biological organization, which has three tenets: all organisms are made up of one or more cells; the cell is the structural unit of life; cells only arise from the division of preexisting cells. Toughest body cell systems, bound together by calcium and phosphate. Give strength, support, and frame work to the body by enclosing organs in skeletal system. Present in large bones to help them bend/move freely. Found in brain and spinal cord, combine to form the nervous tissue. Rich in actin and myosin, have the ability to contract/relax providing movements. Cells form covering layers of all the organs. Red blood cells, white blood cells, thrombocytes (platelets) Conduct electrical impulse from region to region (nerve cells, muscle cells) Stores materials like fat for later use (adipose cells) Specialized for important functions (sperm, oocytes, stem cells, rods/cones, ciliated cells, blood cells) When one organism enters another and engages in a mutually beneficial relationship.

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