CHEM 2400- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 32 pages long!)

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11 Oct 2017
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CHEM 2400
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SET 1
Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry which deals with carbon compounds, including those with no
relationship to life.
Saturated Hydrocarbon
Contain only only carbon-to-carbon single bonds. The most chemically inert of all
organic compounds.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
Contain carbon-to-carbon double or triple bonds.
Carbon
An element that has the capacity to share four electrons in order to achieve a more stable
configuration.
Hydrocarbon Molecule
Contains only carbon and hydrogen. Can be divided into aliphatic and aromatic classes.
Substituted Hydrocarbon
One or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by another atom or group of atoms called a
Functional Group.
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon
A saturated hydrocarbon that contains only hydrogen (the maximum number) and carbon.
Does not contain benzene ring.
Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Contain at least one benzene ring or similar structural features.
Benzene
Consists of a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating single and double carbon-carbon
bonds.
Alkanes
(CnH2n+2)
Cycloalkanes
(CnH2n)
Structural Isomerism
Compounds that have identical molecular formulas but different structures.
Cis-trans Isomerism
The formation of cis-trans isomers is a consequence of the absence of free rotation.
Geometric isomers that only differ from each other in the 3-dimensional arrangement of
the substituents in space. They have identical bonding and substituents.
Alkane
Saturated hydrocarbons (containing only carbon-to-carbon single bonds); derivatives of
methane. Noted by the suffix "-ane" and sometimes by the prefix "cyclo-"
Alkene
Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. Noted
by the suffix "-ene"
Alkyne
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Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Noted by
the suffix "-yne"
Functional Group
An atom or group of atoms arranged in a particular way that is primarily responsible for
the chemical and physical properties of the molecule in which it is found. There are a
total of 10 of these.
Alcohols
Organic compounds that contain the hydroxyl group (R-OH). Noted by the the suffix "-
ol"
Carboxylic Acids
Organic compounds that contain the carboxyl functional group, also referred to as
organic acids. Noted by the suffix "-oic acid"
Esters
Organic compounds formed by the reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
Noted by the suffix "-oate"
"-yl"
Nomenclature for the alchohol group in an ester.
"-oate"
Nomenclature for the acid group in an ester.
Aldehydes
Hydrocarbon derivatves in which two of the hydrogen atoms, attached to a terminal
carbon, have been replaced by a double-bonded oxygen atom (carbonyl group). Noted by
the suffix "-al"
Ketones
Organic compounds containing the carbonyl group attached to two organic radicals.
Noted by the suffix "-one"
Ethers
An organic compound whose molecules have two alkyl groups joined to the same oxygen
atom (R-O-R). Noted by the suffix "-oxy" and "-ane"
Amines
Organic compounds derived from ammonia by replacement of one or more of its
hydrogen atoms by one or more hydrocarbon radicals (R-NH-R). Noted by the prefix
"amino-"
Amides
Organic compounds whose molecules have a carbonyl nitrogen bond. They are the
product formed in a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an amine.
Meth-
Prefix - 1 carbon.
Eth-
Prefix - 2 carbons.
Prop-
Prefix - 3 carbons.
But-
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