CHEM 3650- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 159 pages long!)

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11 Oct 2017
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CHEM 3650
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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SET 1
What shape is water?
Planar
Water's ability to stick to itself makes it __________
Cohesive
Energy at which water forms hydrogen bonds= ____________
About 20 KJ/mol or 3-6 Kcal/mol
H bonds are ___________
Directional (most stable in linear position)
Up to how many hydrogen bonds can a water molecule from?
4, with an average of 3.4 bonds in liquid H2O
How does water dissolve polar and ionizable molecules?
By forming a solvation shell around ions
Why is water a good solvent?
It weakens electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds by competing for attractions
Molecules that dissolve readily in water are called? ___________ __________ __________
Hydrophilic, Polar, or charged
Glucose is ______ (soluble or insoluble)
Soluble because of the 5 hydroxyl groups that are capable of hydrogen bonding
Define Hydrophobic
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Molecules that cannot interact with water and therefore do not dissolve in the presence of water
Hydrophobic effect
When non-polar molecules within water tend to cluster together. This phenomenon occurs
because of water is very cohesive.
Is the hydrophobic effect spontaneous or spontaneous
spontaneously because when the cluster forms the entropy of the system increases.
Amphipathic
When molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
Sodium Deodecyl Sulfate
SDS contains a polar sulfate group and a 12 carbon tail
Four types of non-covalent bonds
1) Electrostatic (ionic)
2) Hydrogen bond
3) Van der Walls
4) hydrophobic interactions
Electrostatic interactions
attraction based on charge with a distance between ions of approx. 2.8 Angstroms
Energy of electrostatic interactions
40-200 KJ/mol or 3-7 kcal/mol
Hydrogen Bonds
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Document Summary

Water"s ability to stick to itself makes it __________ Energy at which water forms hydrogen bonds= ____________ 4, with an average of 3. 4 bonds in liquid h2o. It weakens electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds by competing for attractions. Soluble because of the 5 hydroxyl groups that are capable of hydrogen bonding. Molecules that cannot interact with water and therefore do not dissolve in the presence of water. When non-polar molecules within water tend to cluster together. This phenomenon occurs because of water is very cohesive. Is the hydrophobic effect spontaneous or spontaneous spontaneously because when the cluster forms the entropy of the system increases. When molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. Sds contains a polar sulfate group and a 12 carbon tail. Four types of non-covalent bonds: electrostatic (ionic, hydrogen bond, van der walls, hydrophobic interactions. Electrostatic interactions attraction based on charge with a distance between ions of approx.

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