[CORE-UA 533] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 69 pages long Study Guide!

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CORE-UA 533
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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09.12.16 Notes
Safavid Dynasty
Beginnings and Influence
Safavids existed from 1501 to 1722.
Safavids attempted to control Western against the Ottoman empire.
They also tried to control part of what is now Afghanistan to the East, which was
contested by the Turkish.
Brought Shi’i religion as national religion for Iran.
Decline
Empire went into decline in late 17th century into early 18th century, until it was
overthrown.
After being overthrown, various regional tribes competed to control the whole of Iran.
None of these powers got complete control, leading the 18th century to be defined by
political instability and economic decline.
Qajars were a tribal group from northwestern Iran, that expanded their influence East,
contending for the Iranian throne.
By 1796, the Qajars won wars and started the Qajar dynasty in Iran.
Rise of the Qajars
Beginnings and Influence
The first Qajar leader was quickly assassinated.
Fath Ali Shah was the first long-term king of the Qajars.
Established Tehran, a small town which supported the Qajars as the capital.
Tehran quickly grew into the largest and most extravagant city in Iran.
Problems
Qajars didn’t have strong centralized control.
Struggles between religious and political leaders.
Lack of industrialization.
Caught between Russia, France, and Britain in Napoleonic wars.
Rival contenders to throne.
Forging Alliances
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Contenders to the throne.
Gift giving, including diplomatic gifts.
Provisional governorships given out to create alliances.
Shifting alliances continued for about a decade.
Provisional governors more or less left alone for daily affairs.
Displaying Legitimacy
Taq-e Bostan Added representations of himself next pre-islamic kings and deities.
Fath Ali Shah put his name on money.
Facing Territorial Threats
Competitions over the Caucasus.
The Caucasus in the view of Iranian rulers.
Georgia became a battle ground between Iran and various empires.
First Russo-Iranian War (1804-1813)
The Treaty of Golestan (1813)
Military Reform Attempts
Abbas Mirza, the Crown Prince, Governor of Iranian Azerbaijan.
It became clear during the war that the western military training of the Russians was
superior to the tribal warfare of the Iranians.
Thus, Fath Ali Shah employed Abbas Mirza to reform the military.
This involved sending students to Europe to learn military tactics.
Second Russo-Iranian War (1826-8)
Concessions
Iran lost, signed Treaty of Turkomenchay (1928)
Loss of the Caucasus north of the Aras River.
War reparations.
Loss of navigation rights in the Caspian Sea.
No internal duties from Russian goods.
Extraterritoriality.
Collecting Taxes
Weak government authority.
The tuyul system - Auction off the right to collect taxes in a given village or area.
Made sure local forces competed with each other.
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