[NEURL-UA 100] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 52 pages long Study Guide!

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NYU
NEURL-UA 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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There are equal numbers of neurons and glia in the human brain
a.
Neurons-sense changes in the environment, communicate these
changes to other neurons and command the body responses to the
sensations
b.
Suspends them in their appropriate locations
i.
Glial Cells- contribute to brains function mainly by insulating,
supporting, and nourishing neighboring neurons
c.
Introduction
I)
Histology- the microscopic study of the structure of tissues.
a.
Nissl Stain-distinguishes between neurons and glia and enables
histologists to study the arrangement or cytoarchitecture of neurons
b.
Being able to make a single cell visible from the 100000 cells
in the brain
i.
The Golgi Stain- soaking brain tissue in a silver Chromate solution
makes a small percentage of neurons dark in their entirety
c.
i.
Dendrites- really over 2mm; taper to find point to receive
signals
1)
Axons-can extend over great distances to carry the output
of neurons; uniform diameter
2)
Neurites
ii.
Neurons have at least two distinguishable parts
d.
Took baby cats and kills then before the brains got to develop
i.
ii.
iii.
Cajals Contribution
e.
The Neuron Doctrine
II)
Technology unchanged
a.
Resolution limited to about 400x
b.
Absolute limit 1000x
c.
The light Microscope
III)
Lecture 2
Tuesday,) September) 13,)2016
9:46)PM
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Absolute limit 1000x
c.
Cytoplasm - everything in the cell membrane excluding
the nucleus
1)
Cytosol-fluid in the cell is salty and potassium rich
i.
Chromosomes which contain DNA
1)
The Nucleus
ii.
Genes are missing or over expressed causing
disease
a)
SNPs are usually harmless doe
i)
Mutations- typographical errors
b)
Knockout
i)
Transgenic mice- over expression of a gene
ii)
Knock in mice- replace a gene
iii)
Genetic engineering- changing an organism with
gene mutations or insertions
c)
Gene copy number variations
1)
Neuronal Genes, Genetic Engineering
iii.
A ribosomes-site of protein synthesis
1)
Rough ER- stacked with ribosomes and they're the thing
that Nissl Stains color
2)
Polyribosomes-many ribosomes working on a strand of
mRNA
3)
A free ribosome makes proteins meant for the cell
a)
ER ribosomes make proteins meant for the
membrane
b)
Much more rough ER in the neuron than Glia
4)
Rough ER
iv.
Smooth ER folds proteins
1)
Golgi packages proteins
2)
Smooth ER and Golgi
v.
Generate pyruvic acid from fat, metabolize proteins,
anaerobically, or aerobically
a)
IN THE BRAIN THE ONLY WAY TO MAKE
PYRUVIC ACID IS WITH SUGAR
b)
Pyruvic Acid+Oxygen=CO2 +ATP
1)
Mitochondria are sites of cellular respiration
vi.
The Soma
a.
i.
The Neuronal Membrane
b.
The Prototypical Neuron
IV)
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