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PSYCH-UA 1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 17 pages long!)

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[PSYCH-UA 1] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at Learning Identify and explain the basic hardware components that enable animals to respond to their environment ● Reflex: hard wired stimulus response circuit. We are born knowing how to do this. Rats run from cats, they eat cheese, they mate with other rats, they feed their children. Humans respond to a knee tap at the doctor ● Habituation: the circuit breaker. It gives us the ability to stop a reflex from responding over time. ○ Ex. a novel sound in your environment, such as a new ring tone, may initially draw your attention or even become distracting. After you become accustomed to this sound, you pay less attention to the noise and your response to the sound will diminish. This diminished response is habituation. ○ Ex. a dog may find a vacuum very frightening at first, but after years of being exposed to it may not find it so scary. ● Sensation: the ability to sense relative necessities (such as food) or relative avoidances (such as predators) around us. Through our 5 senses (eyes, ears, etc.) we are able to sense what is going on around us Explain why the ability to predict the environment is critical for survival ● The ability to predict where things will be is important, that way you can plan ahead where an object/predator will be. In the example of the rat and cat, the rat needs to be able to predict that the cat is near when it hears the bell around its neck. This will give the rat a higher potential to survive. In this example, the reflex is to run away from the cat, while the learned behavior is hearing the bell and running away before the cat appears. ● Knowing what’s going to happen before it happens let’s us guide our behavior much more effectively and lets us increase our chances for success. Define, explain what is meant by, and identify/generate examples of the following concepts: ● Learn associations ○ Predictions: Conditioned stimulus is added to unconditioned stimulus to cause conditioned response, which normally, before this association, this CS would have no reflexive response. Learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned to illicit the same response (conditioned response) ■ Ex: Rat sees a block of cheese and salivates as a reflex. Then, the cheese becomes associated with a blinking light, and then the rat salivates due to the blinking light alone as a result of conditioning. ● CS - light blinking find more resources at
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