[PSYCH-UA 1] Comprehensive spring guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at oneclass.com
Identify and explain the basic hardware components that enable animals to respond to
● Reflex: hard wired stimulus response circuit. We are born knowing how to do this. Rats
run from cats, they eat cheese, they mate with other rats, they feed their children.
Humans respond to a knee tap at the doctor
● Habituation: the circuit breaker. It gives us the ability to stop a reflex from responding
○ Ex. a novel sound in your environment, such as a new ring tone, may initially
draw your attention or even become distracting. After you become accustomed to
this sound, you pay less attention to the noise and your response to the sound
will diminish. This diminished response is habituation.
○ Ex. a dog may find a vacuum very frightening at first, but after years of being
exposed to it may not find it so scary.
● Sensation: the ability to sense relative necessities (such as food) or relative avoidances
(such as predators) around us. Through our 5 senses (eyes, ears, etc.) we are able to
sense what is going on around us
Explain why the ability to predict the environment is critical for survival
● The ability to predict where things will be is important, that way you can plan ahead
where an object/predator will be. In the example of the rat and cat, the rat needs to be
able to predict that the cat is near when it hears the bell around its neck. This will give
the rat a higher potential to survive. In this example, the reflex is to run away from the
cat, while the learned behavior is hearing the bell and running away before the cat
● Knowing what’s going to happen before it happens let’s us guide our behavior much
more effectively and lets us increase our chances for success.
Define, explain what is meant by, and identify/generate examples of the following
● Learn associations
○ Predictions: Conditioned stimulus is added to unconditioned stimulus to cause
conditioned response, which normally, before this association, this CS would
have no reflexive response. Learning to associate a conditioned stimulus with an
unconditioned to illicit the same response (conditioned response)
■ Ex: Rat sees a block of cheese and salivates as a reflex. Then, the
cheese becomes associated with a blinking light, and then the rat
salivates due to the blinking light alone as a result of conditioning.
● CS - light blinking
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