Study Guides (238,633)
United States (119,863)
Psychology (96)
PSYCH-UA 1 (39)

Psych Exam 1 Review.docx

20 Pages
Unlock Document

Marjorie Rhodes

Introduction to Psychology Exam 1 Review Sheet Introduction (lecture) Uniquely human abilities and why they are significant • Qualitative intelligence that allows us to be more successful in our environmentthrought the use of the brain • Tools that allow us to reach a higher level of sophistication • Language: uniquely symbolic and not constrained by forms of language that came before us o we can change and manipulate language and communicate ideas we have never thought of before • Mathematics: allow us to make predictions and engineer an environment more suitable for our needs unique problem solving skills • Teaching: ability to create knowledge and then share it with others, improving and transmitting knowledge through generations • Art, dance, music: somewhat mysterious and don’t show a clear purpose but still common across all human cultures and they are unique to the human race Understand what is meant by referring to the mind as “a computer” • The mind contains the mental algorithms and cognitive processes necessary for the brain to interact with the environment • The hard wiring (computer code) is considered to be the brainthe actual neurons firing and electron potential pathways • The mind is the bridge between the brain and the world Identify, define, and know the significance of the five foundations of psychological science (EMIME) Evolution • Genes make brains • Humans and other living things evolved from natural selection Materialism • Brains make minds • All of your inner cognitive experiences, sensory experiences, emotional life, is all the DIRECT PRODUCT of firing of neurons. • how the brain relates to the mind Idealism • Minds make reality • There is some objective world out there and it is shaping us and is directly causing what we are seeing • BUT the brain has just as much a part in this as the world • Ex: Optical illusions-- leads to the brain adjusting in ways we can’t control so we can make sense out of what we’re seeing Modularity • The mind is a collection of parts • We are not one single coherent entity • Our minds are a compilation of multiple parts that are sometimes interacting with each other Empiricism • Believe only what you can count • Psychology is based only on objective methods Methods (most of this material is covered in both the lecture and the textbook- review both) • Aset of rules and techniques for observation that allows observers to avoid the illusions, mistakes and erroneous conclusions that observation can produce Identify why Empiricism is challenging for psychological science • Sometimes straight forward observations of your senses can lead you astray • Need more elaborate measurements and ways of gaining data to get the right answer • Brain processes are very difficult to directly observe • Three big problems for psychological science 1) Complexity: 100 trillion connections in the brain 2) Variability: can’t generalize easily across the human race and this makes understanding a particular individual difficult 3) Reactivity: humans care about what others think of us so we might be motivated to change our behavior when we know its being measured Identify, define, and give examples of operational definitions • Factors you would use to measure an abstract property • Ex: if you’re studying sensitivity, operational definitions could include: ticklishness, pain, threshold Understand the relations between an abstract property, operational definition, and a measure • Abstract property: sensitivity • Operational definition: ticklishness, etc. • Measure: laughs per minute, squirming, # of “please stop” • Sometimes measuring operational definitions is difficult because people react differently to different stimuli Agood OPERATIONAL DEFINITION has: - Construct validity tendency for a clear conceptual relation to exist between the abstract property and the operational definition o Whatever you decide as the operation definition has to really relate to the abstract property - Convergent validitythe tendency for operational definitions to be related to other operational definitions o Pain and threshold measure sensitivity, if we did a study that measures one, we should get similar findings as the study that measures the other Agood MEASURE has: - Reliability the tendency for a measure to produce the same result when it is used to measure the same thing o If it consistently yields the same results: high reliability - Discriminant validity the tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things o The device or measurement has to be “discriminant” about its results Understand the relation between a theory and a hypothesis • Theory: a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs o often itself is not clearly/directly testable but it allows you to derive a hypothesis that we can test • Hypothesis: a testable prediction made by a theory Understand the relation between a sample and a population • population: the complete collection of people whose properties we wish to know • sample: the people whose properties we are actually measuring Identify why generality may be a good assumption • it may be a good assumption because there are a lot of human universals. If you wanted to study something related to facial arrangement you can study anyone regardless of the culture you’re growing up in • Generality can be investigated Understand overlapping distributions • • Understand what is meant by “mean differences” and “variability” • • Define and give/recognize examples of observer bias • systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations • ex: experimenter expectancy effect o study in the 1960s by Robert Rosenthal were college students trained rats to run a maze o half the students were told their rats were bred to be poor performers and the other have were told their rats were good performers o in reality there’s no difference between the two rats o the results showed that when students believed their rates were bred to be fast learners, their rats actually proved that they were o the students’expectations influenced the speed at which the rats learned o this study shows that some aspects of our behavior are not under our control and we are not always aware of the many factors that affect how we think, feel, and act. Define and give/recognize examples of subject bias • bias from the people who the researcher is observing • Ex. when subjects act/ perform the way they think they are supposed to act/perform Define and give/recognize examples of demand characteristics • aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think an observer would want or expect them to Identify ways to avoid subject bias • Ensure anonymity: people care a lot less if no one knows it’s you who said it • Measure involuntary or nonobvious behavior: nervousness or intent to deceive • keep subject blind to hypothesis/ don’t tell them exactly what you are measuring ahead of time Identify ways to avoid observer bias • best to have researchers be blind to, or unaware of, the study’s hypothesis • do this by having the Double-Blind Technique, where both the experimenter and the participant are blinded to the conditions Identify what can and cannot be concluded from correlational studies • you can conclude how two variables are related, or synchronized, to one another • a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them • one problem with correlational studies is in knowing the direction of the cause/effect relation between the variables o directionality problem • the researcher might find a relationship between two variables but you cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable because of the third variable problem o this is an issue that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate the variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of the differences in the variables of interest Understand positive and negative correlations • positive: more of something makes results go up • negative: more of something makes results go down Identify three possible reasons why two variables might be correlated but not causally related • third variable • directionality issue • Understand the pets/asthma example • have to account for socioeconomic status, smoking, and other third variables that might influence your data Identify and understand the key ingredients for an experimental study • experiments determine the causal relationship between variables • Key ingredients: o Manipulation: hold everything constant, you want groups to differ only in one thing you’re interested in o Control: random assign subjects to the groups that this manipulation created o Measurement: a dependent variable with a valid, powerful, and reliable device while avoiding bias Be able to identify experimental vs. non-experimental studies • • Understand and identify the importance of random assignment • ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to each group • Ex: getting a puppy should not relate to money, health, free time etc. all variables go away and even out • *with a sufficiently large example, the average composition of both groups will be equivalent along all confounding variables • Holding Constant (ensuring that the two groups are treated identically except for the manipulation) RULES OUT CONFOUNDING VARIABLE IN EXPERIMENTAL SITUATION • Random Assignment (ensuring that each subject has an equal chance of being assigned to each group) RULES OUR CONFOUNDING VARIABLE IN SUBJECT • Confounding variable: anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental conditions of a study Random assignment vs. random sampling (see textbook) • Random sampling is the process by which you select people from a population at random • Random assignment ensures participants are assigned at random to the control group or the experimental group. Be able to identify and know how to avoid selection bias (textbook) • Selection bias is when in an experiment there are unintended differences between the participants in the different groups • The way to avoid this is through random assignment and random sampling Evolution (lecture) Marr’s levels of analysis—identify and define (CIA) • Computation: What is the problem to be solved? EVOLUTION o 2+2=? o Evolution tells us to survive and procreate, therefore much of our makeup is specifically designed to propagate those goals • Algorithm: What is the step-by-step procedure for solving the problem? MIND o There are usually multiple answers to the question  Retrieve it by memory  Count out on fingers  Visualize a number line o The goal is to find out from out of all the possible methods of figuring the answer out, which does the mind actually use • Implementation: How is the solution actually realized physically? BRAIN o How exactly does the brain retrieve and answer from memory/ What are the biological physical processes that occur  Ex. Counting on fingersusing hand to motor process fingers, visualize and count up o Neuroscience: what is the brain doing? Naturalistic fallacy- be able to explain, identify, and describe importance • The idea that things are right because they are natural • “is” DOES NOT = “ought” • Darwin proved that just because things are natural, doesn’t mean they are right Deterministic fallacy- be able to explain, identify, and describe importance • The idea that things are inevitable because they are natural • Humans can choose to ‘disobey’their genes • humans have the ability to go beyond genetic inheritance ex. We can fly and communicate long distance (planes, phones) • through technology and culture, it is not inevitable that we live in the confines of our inheritance o  WE CAN PROGRESS Nature/Nurture as dichotomy- be able to explain, identify, and describe importance of debate • Nature: people have inherent qualities • Nurture: we are products of the environment in which we find ourselves • Nature via Nurture: they are operating together to mold each person Teleology- be able to explain, identify, and describe importance • The idea that things tend to get better over time (smarter faster stronger) • NOT true either • Evolution does not entail getting ‘better’ The environment of evolutionary adaptation— be able to explain, define, identify importance • Evolution does not go in a single direction, it progresses in random variation • Those that are successful in one environment may not be successful in another • We can figure out what evolutionary processes we’re developed to do by examining what evolutionary issues existed • This is important because it shows how the parts of our brain that evolved to solve social problems thousands of years ago are used in very different ways today Brain (lecture) • methods of organization/localization • broad overview of brain organization • Steve Pinker—“Brain cells fire in patterns” o Neurons fire (series of action potentials) which send pathways of continuously firing neurons  Like a computer  Brains use neurons to send patterns o Thoughts are not deterministic o Pattern  thought = patternpattern • Rene Descartes 17 century “I think therefore I am” o Dualismno relationship between the brain and the mind o He thought mental and physical actions coordinated together in pineal gland • Thomas Hobbes Materialism: the mind and brain have a causal relationship o Ex. Seeing an apple sends stimulus in visual representation part of brain and memory retrieval part of brain that gives you recollection of the word “apple” o However, we don’t feel the mental/ brain activity occurring • Placebo: useful to conceptualize how thought alone can cause positive results in the body o Materialism (real medicine)  Medicine changes how the brain and neurons are firing and you feel better o Materialism (placebo)  The thought of taking medicine activates expectation of help  Brain cells fire on the belief that medicine will work and you feel better • Brain injury o Brain psychologists study brain injuries to map out what injuries to certain parts of the brain will do o Agnosia  Motor deficit  Visual deficit Basic concepts of how the brain relates to the mind • • What is meant by “brain cells fire in patterns” • • Why it is unsurprising that placebos affect brain activity • because placebos create the expectation of medicine helping the body which makes brain cells fire based on that belief and you feel better Globalization vs. localization of function • Globalization o Sponge: all parts of the brain are equally good and bad at all functions • Localization o Bicycle: different parts do different things  Injury to one particular area will disrupt one function and not necessarily another Why localized function is important • Localized function is important because injury to one particular area will disrupt one function and not necessarily another • Multiple brain regions imply multiple cognitive processes (ex. Memory) • overlapping brain regions implies overlapping cognitive processes o ex. Gerstmanns’syndromelack of cognitive functioning. Issues with speech, math and reading skills, sometimes finger agnosia, can’t distinguish left from right. What was shown by the case of Phineas Gage • that brain functioning is localized and certain areas of the brain are responsible for different things • pole shot through his face but there were no language, math or physical disruptions • the only thing that changed was his personality and impulse control • this showed that the prefrontal cortex is related to behavior Electrical stimulation • allows for surgical mapping • Wilder Penfield (1891-1976) • Humunungus- physical sensitivity correlated to how much space devoted to that area’s functioning in the brain (weird ugly human thing) o Somatosensory cortex o Motor cortex Modern methods for brain measurement • EEG- Electroencephalography o brain wave measurements o Measures electronegativity in the brain and can detect electronegative changes that are happening and what stimuli affect what o Not good with localization • PET scan- Positron Emission Tomography- • fMRI-Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging o can detect increased blood flow Basic brain organization/function (Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital) • Frontal (Free Range in Elf Land) o Reasoning o Language o Executive Control • Parietal (PayAttention Cause its Obvious) o Attention o Objects in space o Counting • Occipital o Vision • Temporal (TALO) o Auditory o Language o Object recognition Sensation & Perception (lecture) Explain how illusions show evidence of Idealism • As the mind is representing the environment in the brain, sometimes what it represents is distorted from reality • There is always some sense of delusion while experiencing the environment • Illusions demonstrate how our perception of the environment strays from reality itself Sensation vs. Perception • Sensation: process by which important changes in the state of the world create changes in the state of the brain o Which changes in the environment can we detect? o Importing what’s important o Sensing as change detection • Perception: process by which changes in the state of the brain give rise to our conscious experience of the world o What do you think you see? o Going beyond what we can sense Clear example of why its necessary to separate these two: • Blind sight patients: the changes in the world register changes in the brain but there is a disruption in the links that leads to influence in their behavior in unconscious ways • Blind sight caused by injury, so the patient has a sense of what these things mean • Patients will tell you that there’s no point I cant see anything à tell them to just guess à80% of the time patients will guess right àmore than just chance Conscious vs unconscious control o unconscious control effects the way you navigate the world o Information comes in from the environment and there’s a connection that’s maintained between the area of the brain that’s receiving the information and the motor planning that controls your movements àno conscious experience Explain how the sensory capabilities of non-human animals provides evidence for Idealism • There are other possible ways of getting information from the environment that humans don’t have • echolocationàsound waves to locate objects in space • magnetic field detectionàuse the earths magnetic detection • thermal visionàsense heat How visual information flows through the brain • Information flows through the eyes, through the optic nerve, to the thalamus • Then it goes bac
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH-UA 1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.