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Study Guide for PSYCH-UA 1 Test 1 4.0 GPA Student

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH-UA 1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Study Guide for Psych Test 1 -You are a result of chance -sperm from dad egg from mom -many sperm don’t make it, only some survivors -the one to succeed is fertilized and becomes you with mothers egg -we are the biological and psychological realization of instructions carried in about 20,000 to 30,000 genes, which we inherited from both parents -it’s a toss of coins; the number of unique chromosome combinations you can receive is huge -in the selection process there can be crossing-over of parts of a chromosome from one parent with parts in the same pair from the other parent (this means a chromosome passed from a parent can be slightly different in you) -gene pool- different variations of gene -contributes to racial variation -differences exist as much within as between races -mutations-gene undergoes an accidental alteration in its instructions -most mutations are rare and prove lethal but some see you safely in life and alter genetic instructions Conditions that must be met to survive: 1. being successful nurtured through infancy’s long helpless stage 2. being successfully educated in how to be a member of society in ways that can 3. support yourself 4. secure resources necessary to beget and nurture offspring of your own and/or possibly others who carry genes much like yours SURVIVAL: -psychology why do we: -DO what we do -FEEL what we feel -THINK what we think -what we share with animals as our most basic inherited attributes -what distinguishes us from other animals? -what humans have in common and how we differ from one another in -beliefs -personalities -capabilities -how we act in groups regarding how we -perceive each other -treat each other -feel about each other GENETICS: -chromosomes carry instructions for how to build and operate a body -come in pairs (1 from each parent) -humans have 23 pairs (1-22, XX or XY) -made up of strands of DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) -double helix -complimentary chains: adenine-thymine guanine-cytosine mom dad (46) (46) -individual chromosomes egg sperm (23) (23) (X or Y) baby (46) -genes came about with Mendel and his pea plants (Mendelian Inheritance) -some genes are dominant, some recessive Types of Inheritance: -mendelian (dominant/recessive) -co dominance -partial dominance Darwin: -Galapagos islands -birds differed in beaks -he began to see that they were isolated on different islands -beaks needed different things depending where they lived -survival of the fittest! -genes are susceptible to mutation and sometimes a mutation makes you better equipped for survival and that mutation creates variation for natural selection! -natural selection- select for kinds of traits that will fit environment (ongoing, slow process that takes generations before it can be seen) ex. Perch fish with dark skin to blend in with water -recombination of genes that already exist NEEDS FOR SURVIVAL: 1. self protection 2. self replication (social world implication) 3. self replenishment and conservation 4. cooperative specialization and communication between the self’s parts 5. homeostatic self regulation 6. ways of adjudicating between needs in conflict 7. self restoration and maintenence of tonic readiness -most but not all needs, while being unmet activate need detectors, response and cue detectors -self protect: -create a wall against outside invasion -may have arisen from ancient rocks -are always accident self replication: law- safety in numbers (if you have enough of the same thing, chances are if something happens to you, others of your kind will still survive) now: we have a wall with gatekeeper -lets good in, keeps bad out -opening and closing doors require energy! Self replenishment/conservation: (restore energy needed to security) -once you have a gatekeeper, need transport system to direct the things to let in Ex. TRNA -cooperative specialization: different things with different tasks making up the cell homeostatic self regulation: a cell with many parts needs an internal environment (good for keeping things functioning) in humans: -solidity of the cell -need a specific internal temperature -.9% saline (slightly salty required for environment we evolved into) self restoration- we must sometimes shut down shop for repair (sleep) Homeostatic regulation: Continue action Stop action Set points (how we function best) -temp 98.6% F -solidity of blood- .9% salt What is necessary to maintain homeostasis: (a stable internal equilibrium) 1. a set point 2. a sensor 3. a comparator 4. a restitution response mechanism Parasympathetic (upper set point) -clicks in to induce sweating so the core temp can more easily regulate outward (temp too high gets reduced till 98.6) Sympathetic (lower set point) -clicks in to constitute blood vessels that surface to skin, protection against loosing heat, causes shivering to produce heat up to 98.6 -if you are contracting an infection, it is better if the body temp rises so the set point rises (ex. 98.6 to 102) -there is often a beginning period where you feel very cold but the room temp hasn’t changed -what’s happening is the set point has risen but your body temp hasn’t caught up set you are in sympathetic for a few hours until your temp rises -its not good if your temp stays high for too long or if you have a temp that is too high (ex 105) Needs for replenishment: -what’s involved in recognizing a need HUNGER: body weight, nutrition and energy -the signs for feeding: -glucose signals (food converts) -signals from fatty tissue -signals from outside (food selection) -signals for satiety glucose: the most efficient way for the body to use energy -hypothalamic control centers: obesity -bodily factors in obesity -genetic factors -dieting and weight set point -treatment of obesity anorexia nervosa glucose signals: glucose> glycogen liver receptors DON’T EAT Glucose
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