[BIO 205] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (81 pages long)

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BIO 205
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Welcome to BIO 205 Human Anatomy
Prof. Christopher J. Kauhn M.S.
1A. COURSE INTRODUCTION: Today’s lecture covers general information and terminology
related to the study of anatomy. This includes concepts and facts that you will use throughout the
rest of this course as well as in your professional career.
I. DEFINITIONS:
A. Biology: study of living organisms
Subdivisions of Biology:
B. Physiology: concerned with the functioning of the
body
C. Anatomy: that branch of knowledge concerned with structure or morphology of the
body
1. The word anatomy is actually derived from the Greek term: anatomy. When we break the
word down into it’s parts, we find that the term
ana means “apart” and the term – tomy - means “to cut”
• This makes sense, since you have to cut apart the body in order to learn about it.
• Whenever you hear people talk about anatomy, you’ll hear them use the term “dissect.”
What does that mean?
2. The term dissect is the Latin equivalent for the Greek term anatomy.
The Latin prefix “dis” means “apart” The suffix “sectare” means “to cut.”
This describes what we have to do in order to learn about anatomy, we dissect in order
to see the anatomy of the body.
II. Subdivisions of Anatomy
A. Cytology: study of cells
B. Histology: study of tissues
C. Gross Anatomy: study of structure visible with the naked eye
D. Surface Anatomy: study of the surface structures
E. Developmental Anatomy (Embryology):development of the body prior to birth
F. Comparative Anatomy:comparing human structure to that of other animals
G. Radiology: use of radiation to visualize internal body structure
H. Anatomical Pathology:study of tissue that departs from the normal and thus is
diseased
III. Organization of the Body
A. Cell: smallest unit of living matter and the characteristic building block of all plant
and animal tissue
B. Tissue: collection of cells of similar structure and function
C. Organ: consist of one or more tissues blended in such a way as to form a structure,
which can perform one function or related functions.(for example, the brain)
D. Organ System: consists of one or more organs that act together in performing a major
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function of the body.(for example, the nervous system: brain, spinal cord, peripheral
nerves and their surrounding tissues.)
E. Body: composed of 12 organ systems
III. Organization of the Body Continued
Cells Tissues Microanatomy: structures are seen with the aid of a
microscope
------------------------------------------------------------------
Gross Anatomy: structures are seen with the unaided eye
Organs Organ Systems Body
IV. METHODS OF STUDY When it comes to studying the human body, there are a couple of
approaches that we can take...
The human body can be studied via two methods:
First, is Systemic: which is organized according to the twelve body systems.
Another approach is Regional: which is organized according to the natural body
subdivisions
Let’s talk about each of these approaches...
IV. Methods of Study Continued...
A. Regional: according to the natural subdivisions of the body.
1. Head: facial region, cranium
2. Neck
3. Thorax(chest)
4. Abdomen
5. Pelvis
6. Back(posterior aspect thorax, abdomen, and pelvis)
7. Trunk(combination of thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and back)
8. Upper limb (extremity): pectoral region, arm, forearm, and hand
9. Lower limb (extremity): gluteal region, thigh, leg, and foot
B. The SYSTEMIC approach to studying anatomy is organized according to the twelve major
organ systems. These are collections of organs that perform related functions. Perhaps you may
know some of the systems, think for a minute...
The 12 systems of the body are:
1. articular
2. cardiovascular or circulatory
3. digestive
4. endocrine
5. reproductive
6. integumentary
7. lymphatic
8. muscular
9. nervous
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