ANTHROP 2200: Exam 3 Study Guide
Note from your instructor:
I focus on the material presented in my lectures in the exam. This study guide contains the topics
that I think are MOST IMPORTANT for you to know from these lectures. You should not only
know the definition for these terms, but also how they relate to other concepts in the lectures.
However, I reserve the right to place any information from the lectures, labs, or your textbook on
You do NOT need to know the specific dates (Example: 200,000 yBP) for a given species.
However, you should have a sense of how species are related (ancestors and descendants)
and which species are contemporary.
Bipedalism: Morphological Changes
What is a hominin?
● Present day humans and their ancestors
What is mosaic evolution?
● Evolution of one trait at a time to create the final product - the traits are evolving
at different times and rates which causes them to have different traits.
What is an ancestral (primitive) trait? What is a derived trait?
Primitive traits are those inherited from distant ancestors. Derived traits are those that just
appeared (by mutation) in the most recent ancestor.
“Ape like” face Anteriorly placed Foramen magnum
Small (~350cc) brain Large (~1450cc) brain
Large brow ridge Small canines--Non-honing chewing complex
Large sagittal crest Thick enamel
Still less prognathic than apes Be able to name morphological indicators of bipedalism vs. quadrupedalism
1. Foramen magnum position
➢ Bipedal: More anterior (Bottom of the skull)
➢ Quadrupedalism: More Posterior (Back of skull)
2. Vertebral Column Shape
➢ Bipedal: S-shaped
○ Body over center of gravity = Less muscular effort for posture
○ Increasing size of vertebrae
➢ Quadrupedal Ape: C-Shaped
○ Center of gravity low between the four limbs
○ Relatively equal size of vertebrae
3. Valgus or Varus Knee
➢ Bipedal: Valgus knee
○ Bicondylar angle of femur and knees greater than 90 degrees
○ Keeps knee and foot in line with center of gravity = Balance
caused by longer femoral neck
➢ Quadrupedal Ape: Varus knee
○ Angle of femur and knee is ~ 90 degrees
4. Pelvis shape
○ Lots of time on one leg
○ More gluteal muscles attach the leg to the side of the pelvis
○ Pelvis is shorter and wider
➢ Quadrupedal Ape:
○ Fewer muscle attachments on pelvis = Narrow, Long Pelvis
5. Leg vs. arm proportions
➢ Bipedal: Legs longer than arms
○ Longer, faster stride, more energy efficient
➢ Quadrupedal Ape: Arms slightly longer than legs
○ Knuckle walking, suspensory locomotion
6. Adducted or Divergent Hallux
➢ Bipedal: Adducted Hallux Longer relative to toes
➢ Quadrupedal Apes: Divergent Hallux (Opposable)
○ Short relative to toes
7. Transverse and/or Longitudinal arch in foot
➢ Bipedal: Double Arched ○ Transverse Arch
○ Longitudinal Arch
➢ Non-Bipedal: Transverse Arch Only
➢ Side note:
○ Longitudinal arch creates human footfall \
○ Heel -> outside of foot -> ball -> big toe
○ Helps reduce fatigue fractures
○ Non-human primates: Heel -> outside of foot -> middle toe
8. Curvature of phalanges
● The more arboreal species have curved phalanges for gripping
● Both quadrupeds and bipeds can have straight phalanges
The evolutionary (genetic) divergence of humans and chimps occurred when?
Know the three genera of earliest hominins
Non-honing chewing complex
- Which hominin is an exception?
● Ardipithecus Kadabba (has a peri-honing chewing complex. This is in between
the canine honing complex and the non-honing complex)
Change in thickness of enamel through human evolution (why does it change?)
● The thickness of the enamel decreased as the diet of the hominins became softer.
What does the sagittal crest indicate? Is it found in apes, hominins (some or all), modern
● A larger sagittal crest indicates larger muscle attachments for stronger chewing abilities.
○ It is larger in apes.
○ Begins to shrink in hominins.
○ Found in modern humans, but is very reduced in size. Discovering Ardi
What are the two species of Ardipithecus?
Did Ardipithecines evolve in a woodland or savanna environment?
● Evolved in woodland environment.
What anatomical evidence do we have that Ardipithecus ramidus still spent time in the trees
● Feet: opposable hallux, lacks longitudinal arch in foot
● Hands: curved phalanges
Know the four species of gracile Australopithecine
Who made the Laetoli footprints?
- Australopithecus Afarensis
Who is the species associated with the fossil “Lucy”?
● Australopithecine Afarensis
Splitters vs. Lumpers
● “Splitters” = New species is created when there is anatomical variation discovered ● “Lumpers” = Combine similar morphological traits into same species
Oldowan tools and which Australopithecine species made them
● Australopithecine Garhi and afarensis
Australopithecine body plan: Are the body and brain ape sized or human sized?
Ape sized - body and brain
Robust Australopithecines descended from Australopithecus africanus
Know the three robust Australopithecines in this lineage
● A. africanus
● Australopithecus robustus
● Australopithecus sediba
Teeth, horns and bones used as tools. Not true, carnivores left Au. Africanus bones among
broken animal bones
Differences between robust and gracile Australopithecines. What does the skull of a robust
Australopithecine look like? Think about the molar size, zygomatic bones, sagittal crest, and
Larger sagittal crest Smaller sagittal crest
Emphasized nuchal crest Small nuchal crest
Vertical face Angled face Larger molars and premolars Larger front teeth
Does a robust Australopithecine have a different body (postcranial) than a gracile
No, just different skulls.
What is the dietary hypothesis for the evolution of robust Australopithecines?
Gracile Au. were omnivores which required larger front teeth to tear through, while
Robust Au. were reliant on grasses and nuts which required molars and premolars to
Which two robust Australopithecines have a gracile cranium but robust teeth?
● Au. Africanus
● Au. sediba
Robust Australopithecines descended from Australopithecus aethiopicus
Know the two robust Australopithecines in this lineage
● Australeopithecus aethiopicus
● Autraleopithecus boisei
Why are these considered “hyper-robust?”
● Robust skull emphasized with larger chewing attachments, longer snout, larger
zygomatics, larger premolars and molars
What is a “dished face”?
● The super large flared zygomatics that make the face sort of cave in Homo habilis
What is the difference between Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis?
- Homo Habilis has a smaller brain, smaller teeth, and smaller body
Why is Homo habilis considered a member of the Homo genus?
What type of tool did Homo habilis use?
Does Homo habilis have Australopithecine body proportions or modern human body
- Homo habilis has Australopithecine body proportions
What three continents did Homo erectus live on?
Europe, Africa, and Asia
Which species is associated with the Illeret fossil footprints?
- Homo Erectus
Why do some anthropologists classify Homo erectus in Africa as Homo ergaster?
Why do some anthropologists classify Homo erectus in Europe as Homo antecessor? What species is associated with Nariokotome/Turkana Boy?
- Homo Erectus
Does Homo erectus have Australopithecine body proportions or modern human body
● Modern human body proportions
What type of tool did Homo erectus invent?
● Acheulian stone technology
What was a new technology that Homo erectus discovered for getting more nutrients out of its
food? Hint: We find evidence of it in Zhoukoudian, China
● Cooking food