ANTHROP 2200 Midterm: ANTH2200 Exam/Midterm 3 Study Guide

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Kirby Trovillo

ANTHROP 2200: Exam 3 Study Guide Note from your instructor: I focus on the material presented in my lectures in the exam. This study guide contains the topics that I think are ​MOST IMPORTANT ​for you to know from these lectures. You should not only know the definition for these terms, but also how they relate to other concepts in the lectures. However, I reserve the right to place any information from the lectures, labs, or your textbook on the exam. You do NOT need to know the specific dates (Example: 200,000 yBP) for a given species. However, you should have a sense of how species are related (ancestors and descendants) and which species are contemporary. Bipedalism: Morphological Changes What is a hominin? ● Present day humans and their ancestors What is mosaic evolution? ● Evolution of one trait at a time to create the final product - the traits are evolving at different times and rates which causes them to have different traits. What is an ancestral (primitive) trait? What is a derived trait? Primitive traits are those inherited from distant ancestors. Derived traits are those that just appeared (by mutation) in the most recent ancestor. Primitive Derived “Ape like” face Anteriorly placed Foramen magnum Small (~350cc) brain Large (~1450cc) brain Large brow ridge Small canines--Non-honing chewing complex Large sagittal crest Thick enamel Still less prognathic than apes Be able to name morphological indicators of bipedalism vs. quadrupedalism 1. Foramen magnum position ➢ Bipedal: More anterior (Bottom of the skull) ➢ Quadrupedalism: More Posterior (Back of skull) 2. Vertebral Column Shape ➢ Bipedal: S-shaped ○ Body over center of gravity = Less muscular effort for posture ○ Increasing size of vertebrae ➢ Quadrupedal Ape: C-Shaped ○ Center of gravity low between the four limbs ○ Relatively equal size of vertebrae 3. Valgus or Varus Knee ➢ Bipedal: Valgus knee ○ Bicondylar angle of femur and knees greater than 90 degrees ○ Keeps knee and foot in line with center of gravity = Balance caused by longer femoral neck ➢ Quadrupedal Ape: Varus knee ○ Angle of femur and knee is ~ 90 degrees 4. Pelvis shape ➢ Bipedal: ○ Lots of time on one leg ○ More gluteal muscles attach the leg to the side of the pelvis ○ Pelvis is shorter and wider ➢ Quadrupedal Ape: ○ Fewer muscle attachments on pelvis = Narrow, Long Pelvis 5. Leg vs. arm proportions ➢ Bipedal: Legs longer than arms ○ Longer, faster stride, more energy efficient ➢ Quadrupedal Ape: Arms slightly longer than legs ○ Knuckle walking, suspensory locomotion 6. Adducted or Divergent Hallux ➢ Bipedal: Adducted Hallux Longer relative to toes ➢ Quadrupedal Apes: Divergent Hallux (Opposable) ○ Short relative to toes 7. Transverse and/or Longitudinal arch in foot ➢ Bipedal: Double Arched ○ Transverse Arch ○ Longitudinal Arch ➢ Non-Bipedal: Transverse Arch Only ➢ Side note: ○ Longitudinal arch creates human footfall \ ○ Heel -> outside of foot -> ball -> big toe ○ Helps reduce fatigue fractures ○ Non-human primates: Heel -> outside of foot -> middle toe 8. Curvature of phalanges ● The more arboreal species have curved phalanges for gripping ● Both quadrupeds and bipeds can have straight phalanges Earliest Hominins The evolutionary (genetic) divergence of humans and chimps occurred when? 8-4 mya Know the three genera of earliest hominins 1. Sahelanthropus 2. Orrorin 3. Ardipithecus Non-honing chewing complex - Which hominin is an exception? ● Ardipithecus Kadabba (has a peri-honing chewing complex. This is in between the canine honing complex and the non-honing complex) Change in thickness of enamel through human evolution (why does it change?) ● The thickness of the enamel decreased as the diet of the hominins became softer. What does the sagittal crest indicate? Is it found in apes, hominins (some or all), modern humans? ● A larger sagittal crest indicates larger muscle attachments for stronger chewing abilities. ○ It is larger in apes. ○ Begins to shrink in hominins. ○ Found in modern humans, but is very reduced in size. Discovering Ardi What are the two species of ​Ardipithecus? 1. Ramidus 2. Kadabba Did Ardipithecines evolve in a woodland or savanna environment? ● Evolved in woodland environment. What anatomical evidence do we have that ​Ardipithecus ramidus ​still spent time in the trees (arboreal)? ● Feet: opposable hallux, lacks longitudinal arch in foot ● Hands: curved phalanges Gracile Australopithecines Know the four species of gracile Australopithecine 1. anamensis 2. afarensis 3. platyops 4. Garhi Who made the Laetoli footprints? - Australopithecus Afarensis Who is the species associated with the fossil “Lucy”? ● Australopithecine Afarensis Splitters vs. Lumpers ● “Splitters” = New species is created when there is anatomical variation discovered ● “Lumpers” = Combine similar morphological traits into same species Oldowan tools and which Australopithecine species made them ● Australopithecine Garhi and afarensis Australopithecine body plan: Are the body and brain ape sized or human sized? Ape sized - body and brain ​Robust Australopithecines descended from ​Australopithecus africanus Know the three robust Australopithecines in this lineage ● A. africanus ● Australopithecus robustus ● Australopithecus sediba Osteodontokeratic hypothesis: Teeth, horns and bones used as tools. Not true, carnivores left Au. Africanus bones among broken animal bones Differences between robust and gracile Australopithecines. What does the skull of a robust Australopithecine look like? Think about the molar size, zygomatic bones, sagittal crest, and prognathism. Robust Gracile Larger sagittal crest Smaller sagittal crest Emphasized nuchal crest Small nuchal crest Vertical face Angled face Larger molars and premolars Larger front teeth Does a robust Australopithecine have a different body (postcranial) than a gracile Australopithecine? No, just different skulls. What is the dietary hypothesis for the evolution of robust Australopithecines? Gracile Au. were omnivores which required larger front teeth to tear through, while Robust Au. were reliant on grasses and nuts which required molars and premolars to grind up. Which two robust Australopithecines have a gracile cranium but robust teeth? ● Au. Africanus ● Au. sediba Robust Australopithecines descended from ​Australopithecus aethiopicus Know the two robust Australopithecines in this lineage ● Australeopithecus aethiopicus ● Autraleopithecus boisei Why are these considered “hyper-robust?” ● Robust skull emphasized with larger chewing attachments, longer snout, larger zygomatics, larger premolars and molars What is a “dished face”? ● The super large flared zygomatics that make the face sort of cave in Homo habilis What is the difference between ​Homo habilis ​and​ Homo rudolfensis​? - Homo Habilis has a smaller brain, smaller teeth, and smaller body Why is ​Homo habilis​ considered a member of the Homo genus? What type of tool did ​Homo habilis​ use? - Oldowan Does Homo habilis ​have Australopithecine​ body proportions or modern human body proportions? - Homo habilis has Australopithecine body proportions Homo erectus What three continents did ​Homo erectus​ live on? Europe, Africa, and Asia Which species is associated with the Illeret fossil footprints? - Homo Erectus Why do some anthropologists classify ​Homo erectus​ in Africa as ​Homo ergaster​? - Why do some anthropologists classify ​Homo erectus​ in Europe as ​Homo antecessor? What species is associated with Nariokotome/Turkana Boy? - Homo Erectus Does ​Homo erectus​ have Australopithecine body proportions or modern human body proportions? ● Modern human body proportions What type of tool did ​Homo erectus ​invent? ● Acheulian stone technology What was a new technology that ​Homo erectus​ discovered for getting more nutrients out of its food? Hint: We find evidence of it in Zhoukoudian, China ● Cooking food
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