ANTHROP 2200 - FULL NOTES for the course

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 2200
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY To be Human 6 Unique characteristics (attributes) Bipedalism Non-honing chewing All generalized teeth Material culture/tools Level and complexity Speech Level and complexity Hunting (tools and strategies) Domesticated foods (plants and animals) What is Anthropology? Study of humans 4 subfields: Cultural Physical/Biological Linguistic Archaeological Use different disciplines holistically All together Culture Study of human culture Patterns of behavior Political organization/Social organization Rights of passage Puberty, Marriage, Child birth Ethnography Studying a specific culture in detail Ethnology Comparative study of cultures Ligustic Recording dying languages Grouping language families Understanding how words are used and change Track population movement Archaeological Study Pattern of behavior Use material record Trash Tomb Raiding vs. Contextual Analysis Tomb Raiding (Indiana Jones) Removed from surroundings Looses all meaning Taking without recording information Contextual Analysis Knowing everything about why something was somewhere Keeping lots of record of objects ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Physical/Biological Biological and Biocultural Humans past and present Closest living relatives (primates) Physical Anthropology Subfields of Biological Anthropology Paleoanthropology/ Human Evolution Primatology Skeletal Biology Human Biology Demography Nutritional Anthropology Medical Anthropology Paleoanthropology/ Human Evolution Primate and human evolution Biological and Geological background Theory of Evolution Origins of human species Primatology Anatomy Behavior Ecology Evolution/Origins Skeletal Biology Osteology (bones) Paleopathology Old bones population Forensics individual Human Biology Human and Population genetics Growth and Development Adaptability Demography Paleodemography Before written language Historical Demography After written language Nutritional Anthropology Intake and nutrition Medical Anthropology Medicine and immunization Scientific Method ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Research strategy Repeatable 1) Make Observations 2) Create a Question 3)Hypothesis and predictions 4) Test 5) Analyze (repeat) Theory vs. Law Theory Hypothesis that has been tested and stands Law Been tested for a “long time” and stands without fail DEVELOPING THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION Darwin took from 5 disciplines: Paleontology Systematics Geology Taxonomy Evolution Sequence of change over time Fact and Theory MUST be inheritable Building Blocks Fossils & modern evidence Theory developed over several decades Three key concepts: The Earth is ancient. The surface of the Earth has changed and continues to change. The plants and animals on Earth have changed and continues to change. Bishop James Ussher Pre-17 Century Special Creation Literal interpretation of Bible Great chain of being References Bible Earth was made 4004 BC October 23 (Thursday) Sir Francis Bacon Developed Scientific Methods Borrowing ideas Early evolutionary theory No basis Highly contentious Often secretive/obscure Erasmus Darwin (Darwin’s grandfather) Hierarchy Paleontology Study of fossils Robert Hooke (English) Studied tissue structure Determined fossils were once living ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Fossils are organisms remains Baron George Cuvier Father of comparative anatomy and vertebrate paleontology Catastrophism Major event occurs and species get wiped out Taxonomy & Systematics John Ray & Carolous Linneaus Fossils all around the world Need for other Fathers of Taxonomy John Ray Complete morphology Carolous Linneaus Binomial nomenclature Common language Illustrates evolutionary relationship Two Latin names Describe an organism Genus species Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens Jean Baptiste Lamark Advanced, well supported ideas of evolution Wrong mechanism Ridiculed by Cuvier and died a pauper in Paris Geology James Hutton Studies wind and rain erosion Determined Earth surface changed Uniformitarianism Possesses that happened in the past are happening today and will continue to happen Ridiculed as a heretic Charles Lyell Resurrected Uniformitarianism Rejected Catastrophism Principles of Geology (1830) Charles Darwin Religious Family Naturalist/Biologist at University Education still taught creationist ideas CELL BIOLOGY 3.7 billion years ago prokaryotic cells (single cell) 1.5 billion years ago Eukaryotic cells Two types of cells Body Cells Full amount of chromosomes (46) Other names: Diploid Somatic Sex cells Half the amount of chromosomes (23) ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Other names: Haploid Gametes Sperm or Ovum GENETICS The Genetic Code DNA Replication and direct protein synthesis Double helix Bases Adenine & Thymine Guanine & Cytosine Amino acids and proteins Codon/Triplet/Anticodon Ex. CGA;TTT Amino acids CGA = Alanine TTT = Lysine Proteins Chain of amino acids Two types of DNA Mitochondrial mtDNA inherited only from the mother slow to change Evolutionary lines Mitochondrial Eve At least 7 Nuclear DNA function Replication Nucleus “unzips” Attracts free floating complementary bases Exact copy Formation of new cells Mitosis (somatic) Prophase Replicates Metaphase Lines up in the middle Anaphase Splits apart Telophase Two daughter cells Meiosis (gamete) Meiosis I Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Meiosis II ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 No duplication Protein formation Two step process Transcription mRNA reads copy and makes base pairs Translation tRNA makes amino acid chain RNA Guanine & Cytosine Adenine & Uracil mRNA Nucleus  Ribosomes tRNA Amino acid chain is a protein Genes and Chromosomes Gene – functioning polypeptide Three types Homeobox Code for embryonic development Regulatory Code for growth and development after birth Structural Code for everything else (blood; tissue) Chromosome 23 pairs of chromosomes (46) Number not linked to intelligence Karyotype – characteristics of chromosomes 22 pair autosomes 1pair sex chromosomes XX – Female XY – Male Locus (loci) Specific location on a chromosome (place) Allele Different forms a gene can take (color) DNA Gene ChromosomeGenome Mendelian Genetics Bred two different characters No blending Bred offspring 3:1 ratio different characteristics Punnett square with multiple alleles Mendel realizes one set of alleles does not influence inheritance of another set Mandel’s Laws Law of segregation Two alleles per trait are inherited, one from each parent Law of independent assortment Each gene passes from parents to offspring independent of other physical traits TRAITS DO NOT BLEND Dominant and Recessive ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Genotype Alleles that you possess Phenotype Physical display Dominant alleles Always show Does the “masking” Recessive alleles Always hidden by dominant allele; unless there is no dominant allele present Allele Options Three types of allele pairings Homozygous Dominant AA Heterozygous Aa Homozygous Recessive aa Mendelian Traits Trait is either present of absent Dimples Earlobes Freckles Tongue rolling Co-dominant More than one dominant allele possible If both are there, both are shown Blood types A B AB Polygenic traits Continuous traits Multiple alleles at multiple loci on the chromosomes Skin color, hair color, stature Traits affected by the environment and culture Stature: Childhood nutrition Population Genetics Study of changes in gene frequencies and their effects on adaptation and evolution Darwin: Phenotypes chance over time Mendel: How phenotypes change Anthony Allison: Gene frequencies tied to natural selection Achondroplasia Dwarfism 80% born to average size parents Point mutation after fertilization Causes by one chemical base changed Dwarfism is Dominant Worldwide:~1 in 25,000 births Albinism Recessive trait Melanin production Eye, hair, skin pigmentation Sensitivity to the sun Damage to eye sight ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Many populations affected ~ 1 in 37,000 births Normal life-span Other Recessive disorders Cystic Fibrosis Thick mucus lining Block blood flow ~1 in 3500 births life-span 30-45 years Tay Sachs Disease of nervous system Fat in nerve cells Symptoms ~6 months Fatal ~ 4 years Ashkenazi Jewish population ~1 in 27 French Canadian Louisiana Rhesus Blood Group Rh+ (DD or Dd) and Rh- (dd) Rh+ is most common worldwide Problem is Rh+ father & Rh- Mother Mothers body attacks baby, deprived of oxygen Blue baby syndrome Not a problem with first child Isolated population of Rh- in Basque Speaks to the cultural and linguistic separation Human Dispersal Sickle-Cell Hemoglobin in blood is misshapen Cant carry as much oxygen through blood Human Genome Project Attempt the catalog very gene and chromosome in the human species Understand what genes do what so we can control them Human Genographic Project Trace when people come from MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION Microevolution Breeding population vs. Total Population Gene pool (breeding population) Prediction genotypes Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Predict no evolution Absence of non-random mating Absence of evolutionary forces Hardy-Weinberg Equation Phenotype: p+ q = 1 P=dominant Q=recessive Genotype P is genotype frequency for homozygous dominant 2 Q is genotype frequency for homozygous recessive 2pq is genotype frequency for heterozygous ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Non-random Mating Random Mating Variation Non-random Mating Reproductive selection for specific traits Dog breeds Evolutionary Forces *Change Frequency of Alleles Mutation Change in genetic code *Only source of new genetic material Occurs during mitosis Completely random event Only evolutionary important in a sex cell Neutral, advantageous, deleterious Spontaneous or induced Point mutation Base pair Chromosomal Large sectional or chromosome changes Duplicate, delete, insertion Natural Selection Survival enhancement will increase frequency of gene *Primary driver of evolution Fitness Overpopulationresource competition Advantages = Ability to gain food, strength Favorable traits ReproductionMore common traitNew Species Three things to remember: Only acts on the variation present in the species Environment decides positive or negative traits Selects against bad traits Peppered Moths Sickle-Cell Anemia Genetic drift Random change in frequency of alleles Chance events Greater impact on small populations Speciation can occur Founder Effect Small band of “founders” Colonize new region No interbreeding with parent group Species remains the same Different allele frequency Tay-Sachs Disease Genetic trait Carrier vs. Disease Three populations, 1/27 people Ashkenazi Jewish, French Canadians, Louisiana Cajun Gene flow Exchange of genes between populations Variation increases within, decreases between Immigration & emigration ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Outcrossing Genetic Bottleneck Bottleneck: Catastrophic event Decline in population Survivors successfully reproduce Result: Reduced genetic variability Speciation & Adaptive Radiation Formation of a new species from parent species Step 1: Reproductive Isolation Eliminate or reproduce Gene Flow Forms of reproductive isolation: Geographic isolation; Behavioral differences Step 2: Genetic Divergence Mutation; natural selection; genetic drift Adaptive radiation One species gives rise to multiple species (simultaneously) Disputed Methods: Gradualism & Punctuated Equilibrium Gradualism – continuous evolution over time Transitional Forms Darwin Punctuated Equilibrium - rapid and stable environments over time Gould & Eldrige Misconceptions: Bigger is better Newer is better Natural selection always works Orthogenesis Evolving to meet perfect form/structure Production of perfect structure All structures are adaptive Current structure and function is the initial reason for adaptation Inferences from evolutionary studies Evolution assessed through indirect measurements through morphological change, primarily bones and teeth Inferring Genotypic change from phenotypic characteristics Similarities in morphology between fossils and what appears to be common ancestor that then diverges Must not let biases influence judgment Piltdown Man Hoax HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Human Life Phases Evolutionary perspective Why we develop the way we do Humans have the most phases Marked by biological change Only species to have post reproductive phases The Growth Cycle Adult humans have about 10 trillion cells, mitosis Mitosis begins at fertilization 3 stages of human growth cycle Prenatal Pregnancy – approximately 9 months ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 st 1ndrimester – Mitosis 2 month – 1 inch long, look human Most susceptible to disease/disruption 2 Trimester – Continued growth 3 Trimester – Weight growth and development rapid Ends with birth Brain is only 25% of adult size Postnatal 5 postnatal period Infancy Quickest development outside of the womb Period of nursing 9 months – 4 years Dependent on breast milk Fats, proteins, and energy Brain about 75% of its adult size Childhood/Juvenile Weaning – sexual maturity Unusually long period Dependent on learning and parent’s help Growth levels off (8 – 10 years) Brain finishes development Needs diet high in fats and proteins Cognitive and social learning developments Puberty/Adolescence Puberty – End of growth “Adolescent growth spurt” Up to 3 inches of height Female reach sexual maturity before males Age depends on genetics, diet, and exercise Bones are fusing, growing, and developing Adult Reproductive Phases Periods where gametes are produces Child bearing is possible Senescence (Post Reproductive) Reduction in homeostasis Menopause Osteoporosis Grand-mothering HUMAN ADAPTIBILITY AND VARIATION Different Ecological Systems Stressors and Plasticity Want more plasticity Less stressors Clines not Races Franz Boas ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Father of American Anthropology Cephalic Index Variation not race No such thing as race Developmental flexibility of humans Clines Variations from one environment to the next Adaptations Physiological Acclimation Changes that are very quick/rapid Sweating Acclimatization Changes that take a while to happen Altitude sickness Occur at any time Not inherited Can be reserved Ex: Sweating; goose bumps Developmental Ontogenetic Periods of growth Not inherited Not reversible Ex: Skull; Lungs (high altitude) Bergmann’s Rule Body size Colder environment – Smaller Warm environment - Larger Allen’s Rule Limb Length Colder environment – short; stalky Warm environment – long; slender Genetic Generational adaptation Attached to genes Inheritable Not reversible Ex: Sickle Cell Anemia; Skin color Solar Radiation and Skin Color Melanin, natural sunscreen Dark skin – highest UV exposure Light skin – lowest UV exposure Rickets Cultural Vary depending on what is available to you Food; Clothes Passed from generation to generation Are adaptations mutually exclusive? Can they influence each other or not? Not everyone is able to tan Genetic  Physiological Wearing tons of clothes leads to sweating Cultural  Physiological Lactose intolerance/ Lactase Persistence ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Cultural  Genetic Alcohol Intolerance Cultural  Genetic Are humans still evolving Third Molar (wisdom teeth) Sickle Cell Immunity to HIV/AIDS & smallpox 13% of European population have immunity to HIV possibly developed during bouts with smallpox Immunity to cholesterol QUICK REVIEW Need to know: 4 subfields of anthropology Archaeology Cultural Linguistic Physical Subfields of Biological anthropology Primates & Humans (living or dead) Major Contributions of: Sir Francis Bacon Scientific Method Carolus Linnaeus James Huton Uniformitarianism George Cuvier Catastrophism Jean Baptiste Lamarck Right idea, wrong mechanism Thomas Malthus Population Demography Charles Lyell Principles of geology Alfred Russell Wallace Study Malark Discovery of Evolution Gregor Mendel Genes Watson & Crick Structure of DNA Used franklin and Gosling Anthony Allison Population Geneticist Franz Boaz Race v. Cline Father of American Anthropology Eldrige and Gould Punctuated Equilibrium Darwin’s contributions to the Theory of Evolution Natural Selection Speciation Evolution ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Decent of Man Gradualism DNA, RNA, and the process of protein synthesis No T in RNA (U) 2 steps: Transcription Copy DNA (mRNA) Translation tRNA codons, amino acids Understand genes/chromosomes and terminology associated Codes for something – Genes Types of Genes Homeobox Embryonic development Regulatory Control growth and development postnatal Structural Everything else Know the different types of cells and their replication/division process Body cell, Somatic, Diploid (46 chromosomes) Gamete, Sex cells, Haploid (23 chromosomes) Mitosis New body cells Meiosis New gamete cells Population Genetics Allison How genes change and move through human population and how they evolve in different areas Albinism Dwarfism Tay Sachs Sickle Cell Reese’s Blood group Human Genome Project Code the entire human base pairs Human Geographic Project Tracing personal lineage back through time Four evolutionary forces and key points as discussed in class Natural Selection Driving force of Evolution Gene Flow Increase within; decrease between Outcrossing Genetic Drift Founders Effect More impact on small populations Mutation Only source of new variation Types of mutation Mutation: Point Change in one base paircopy different than originaldifferent codondifferent protein Chromosomal Genetic Drift ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Ashkenazi Jewish Population Understand speciation/adaptive radiation and what causes it Speciation Reproductive isolation Genetic divergence Adaptive Radiation Multiple species from one Know the stages of human growth and development Prenatal Postnatal: Infancy – most rapid growth Childhood – learning Juvenile – learning Puberty – period of growth Adolescences – bone fusion Adult: Reproductive & Senescence Stressors and Plasticity Stressors: Hinder ability to maintain homeostasis Plasticity Ability to adapt to stressor to maintain homeostasis Four types of adaptation and their inheritance and reversibility status Physiological Not inherited, reversible Developmental Not inherited, not reversible Genetic Inherited, not reversible Cultural Depends on environment How adaptations are interconnected Lactose Intolerance (cultural and genetic) Skin color (physiological and genetic) PRIMATE TAXONOMY Taxonomy Used to relate organisms Hierarchy of taxa groups Binomial Nomenclature Genus & species Allopatric Speciation Geographical isolation Parapatric Speciation Two populations Geographically contiguous Only mate with neighbors Abrupt environmental change Sympatric Speciation Occurs in the same location Ecological Niche Occupy different ones No direct competition Classification Considerations ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Need to understand evolutionary relationships Primitive (ancestral) old Derived New (from adaptation) Homology Same feature throughout a lot of different animals Homoplasy Features that have changed Different between species Parallel evolution Wooly mammoth & Elephant Convergent evolution Don’t have anything in common, have similar traits K-Selective Long time until reproduction High parental care Long life spans Larger body size Fewer offspring Ex: Elephants, Humans r-Selective Short time until reproduction Small body size Shorter lifespan Minimal/low parental care Many offspring Ex: Rodents, Bacteria, Fish Mammalian Traits 6 Characteristics Lactation Fur or Hair Jaw is one bone Middle ear consists of three bones Diaphragm One primary artery leaves heart bending left Homeothermic Parental Care Primate Traits 5 characteristics: Opposable Halux (thumb or big toe) Nails instead of claws Forward facing eyes Post-orbital bar Petrosal auditory bulla Often K-selective Relatively large brain size Reduced number of teeth Dietary Plasticity Primate dentition Heterodont Dentition Incisor Canine ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Premolar Molar Dental Formulas 2.1.2.3 (humans/old world primates) Ancestral Formula 2.1.4.3 Precision and power grips Majority of primate hands can grasp: precision and power Precision Fine manipulation with finger tips and thumbs Power Fist-like grip, fingers and thumbs wrap around Cladistic & Gradistic Classifications Cladistic Shared-derived traits Primates Strepsirhine Haplorhine CHS (cladistics haplorhine strepsirhine) Tarsier is Haplorhine Gradistic Primitive ancestral traits Primates breaks into: Prosimians Anthropoids GPA (gradistic prosimians anthropoids) Tarsier is Prosimian New World Primates Americas Old World Primates Africa, Asia Most primates found along equator More species Plants Light and rainfall PRIMATE ADAPTATION AND EVOLUTION Geologic Time 3 Eras Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Epochs Sub categories within eras Pangaea Fossilization Taphonomy Study of how plants and animals become fossilized In order for taphonomy: ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Rapid burial Oxygen-free environment Minerals are replaced by rock-forming minerals Not original biological material DNA still present in trace amounts Chemical analysis for dietary composition 2 ways to date fossils: Relative & Absolute Relative Dating Rough estimate Stratigraphic correlation Biostratigraphy Fluorine Dating Absolute Dating Radiocarbon Dating Dendrochronology Radio potassium Dating Potassium Argon *Good for > 200,000 Years before present Species in the fossil record Organizing the variation Taxonomy Intraspecific variation Within species, there is variation Individual Age Sexual dimorphism Interspecific variation Differences between species “Lumper” v. “Splitter” Finding Fossils Areas of interest Local Knowledge Lay units Dig Careful analysis of layers Stratigraphy Differences in layers of soil Stratum Cultural features v. Natural changes Sift dirt Bones, Artifacts, shells Law of Superposition Lowest = Oldest Paleoanthropology Using fossil evidence with focus on human origins ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Fossils fill holes in evolution Ida fossil Plastic distortion No quite what it is supposed to look like Why did primates evolve? Three possible hypothesis: Insect Hunting Hypothesis Angiosperm Hypothesis Forest Dwelling Hypothesis Paleocene Ancestral form, very primitive Not considered “true primate” Plesiadapiforms Mammal that leads into primates Eocene First ‘true primates; Adapids Great prosimian (strepsirhine) adaptive radiation Ancestral forms of modern lemurs/tarsiers Large eyes suggest nocturnal Stereoscopic vision 2 familes: Adapidae Early Strepsirhine Elongated snout Small incisors Post orbital bar Omomyidae Early Haplorhine Short snout Large incisors Post orbital closure Oligocene Anthropoid (haplorihine) fossils Found in OW and NW Greater reliance on vision, less on smell All generalized quadraped Pribably diurnal Aegyptopithecus (species) Extant monkeys 2.1.2.3 dental pattern Frugivore Quadruped (with clinging and leaping) Sexual dimorphism Miocene Apes evolve Primarily in Africa and Asia 6 MYBP Chimps and Hominids split 2 major genera: Dryopithesines Ramapithecines ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Hominoid spilt Proconsul First ape like creature Large range of body size Sexual dimorphism Ape-like features and monkey-like features No tail Quadraped Oreopithecus Eurasia Possible leaf eater Forest dweller Moderately large Sexual dimorphic Suspensory locomotion (tree) Dryopithecus Hungary and Spain Sivapithecus Asia (southeast) Many derived features in common with orangutans Gigantopithecus Large, massive size (bigger than gorilla) Strepsirine (Prosimians) Tarsiiforms: The misfit species Anatomical features of strepsirhines Tapetum Lucidum (reflective eye) Rhinarium (wet nose) Long snout Post-orbital bar Tooth-comb & Grooming Claw Smaller brain to body size ratio (dumb) Lemuriforms: Lemurs & Lorises Lemurs Endemic (only found) in Madagascar Variation and Ecological Niches Sympatric speciation Nocturnal and Diurnal Solitary and Group Living Ring tailed Lemur Most terrestrial of lemurs Multi-male/multi-female groups Crepuscular (most active around dawn & dusk) Female dominant Stink fights Sifaka (Zaboomafoo) Small family groups 3-9 individuals Vertical Clinger and Leaper Multi-male/Multi-female Indri Largest living lemur ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Vertical clinger and leaper Monogamous Pairs Taboos (don’t kill or eat) Ruffed Lemur Black and White & Red Infant parking Arboreal Quadrupedalism Bamboo Lemur 3 different species leaves pith shoots Can break down cyanide Ranomafana National Park Sympatric speciation Mouse Lemur Smallest lemur species Solitary Nocturnal Aye-Aye Specialized dentition (1.0.0.3/1.0.1.3) Elongated fingers Large eyes Seed predator & insect feeder Taboos Galagos Nicknamed bushbabies Sub-Saharan Africa and Zanzibar Male dominant Infant parkers Tarsiiformes Prosimian or haplorhine? Tarsiers – Southeast Asia Nocturnal, no tapetum lucidum No tooth comb Post orbital bar is developing, still have post orbital closure – stuck in the middle Dry nose, short snout Has grooming claw Only strictly carnivorous primate (Others eat plants to substitute parts of diets) Is a derived species. Social Behavior and Balance (Solitary v. group living) Advantage Protection from predators (Solitary doesn’t attract as much, group attracts more, but have protection etc.) Locate/protect resources (Solitary=don’t have to share, group=more individuals to search, but have to share) Access to mates Long-term bonds (Child rearing/Social learning) Disadvantages Competition Resources & mates Opportunity for violence Haplorhine Haplorhini traits No Tapetum Lucidun No Rhinarium ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Short snout Post-Orbital Closer No tooth-comb Larger brain to body size Suborder Haplorhine Platyrrhine New World Island hopping or Rafting? Three premolars (2.1.3.3) Marmosets & Tamarins Have claw-like nail Tendency towards twins Pygmy marmoset Smallest monkey Many gumnivores Eat tree sap/gum Polyandry One female & multiple males (2) Capuchin Monkey Semi-Prehensile tail Polygamy Largest brain to body size ratio of Non-Human Primate Cultural tool use Squirrel Monkey Seasonally Sexually Dimorphic Arboreal Quadraped Bachelor Groups Owl Monkey Sexually Dimorphic Only Nocturnal Monkey Subspecies shows Cathemerality (equal day and night) Frugivorous Howler Monkeys/Wolly Monkey/Spider Monkey/Muriqui True Prehensile tail Frugivore (seed dispersers) Catarrhine Old World (Apes and Humans) Narrow, Downward Facing Nostrils CP3 Complex 2 Premolars Cercopithecidea Old World Monkeys Have tails Ischial Callosities Butt pads Snub-nosed Monkeys and Langurs Found in China and SE Asia Groups usually 20-30; Can get up to 200 or 300 in the summer Hunted for meat and fur, also used in traditional medicines Proboscis Monkeys Endemic to Borneo ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Webbed feet for swimming Colobus Monkeys, Snub-nosed monkeys, proboscis Monkeys, and Langurs Arboreal Quadrupeds Folivore (Eats everything) Sacculated Stomach (Multi-chambered stomach, allows for better digestion of leaves) Alloparenting (Everyone takes care of all the infants) Some Polygyny Groups (One male to multiple females) Babies are brightly colored so they stand out and parents can find out when they’re alone/unprotected Macaques Most widely distributed of the Non-Human Primates (NHP) Africa all the way to Japan Confrontation with humans Baboons Complex social system Omnivorous diet (Eat anything they can get their hands on) Sexual display on ischial callosities Parapatric speciaiton Mandrills & Drills Sexual displays moved (Brightly colored in face or other areas) Forest habitats Parapatric speciation Macaques, Baboons, Drills, & Mandrills Cheek pouches Mostly omnivorous Large troops; Social hierarchy Polygamy Alpha pair Sexual Dimorphism Terrestrial Quadrupeds Maternal Care The Social Unit -Group living=more competitive Protection from predation outweighs costs -Core social unit: Mothers Development Learning Next to humans, monkeys have the second longest life unit—stages of life The Apes Includes all apes and humans No tails Y-5 molar pattern Larger brains Robust hallux Most have tool use Lesser apes: Gibbons and Siamangs Brachiation Only species that does pure brachiation Swinging by your arms Socially monogamous (Raise offspring/defend territory with the child’s father/mother) Extra pair copulations (Still bone neighbors) Vocal duetting SE Asia Orangutan ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Solitary (Only solitary ape) Suspensory locomotion (Uses all four limbs to move around trees) Repression of sexual characteristics (Try to look like females so they can get close to them and “force copulate” with them) Mother/infant pair Male long calls Culture Birute galdikas (The Jane Goodall of Orangutans) Gorilla Silver Back Males Polygyny Infanticide Folivore/Frugivore Knuckle Wlaking Culture Diane Fossey Chimpanzee Fission-Fusion Groups Culture Knuckle-walkering Hunting Warfare Jane Goodall Bonobo Fission-Fusion Groups Culture Knuckle-walking Make love not war Female Dominant Allopatric Speciation Bonobo & Chimp Primates in Peril Hunting Deforestation Pet Trade Overlapping Resource Use PRIMATE BEHAVIOR Why be social? Group living = more competition Predators/Resources cost and benefits Core social unit Mother & Infant Development Learning Behavioral Ecology Environment impact behavior ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Evolution of behavior (non-human) primate to human Social structure influenced by: Body size Diet Predators Activity patterns Communication Unintentional Increased odor Raised hair Blushing (humans) Pupil dilation Intentional Facial expressions Intense stare: Mild threat “Yawn”: Threat Fear grimace: Fear & submission Lip pucker: playful Gestures Displace: dominance Groom: diffuse tense situations Vocalizations Dominance Dominance hierarchy Reduce physical violence Male & female hierarchy Learn social position Aggression & Affiliation Aggression Disturbance of group Resources or mates Resolved Submission or non-peaceful means Affiliation Grooming Altruism True Reciprocal Reproductive strategies Female Choice Primary Caregiver Needs more food Pick the best male Male Competition Goal: Many offspring Don’t rear offspring Look better than the rest Sexual selection Operates on one sex (generally males) Increase frequency of desired traits Natural selection Behavior, Evolution, & Humans ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Behavior is a continuum (culture included) Non-human primatesearly homininshumans Measure quantity not quality Need Parental bond Physical Contact Social Learning Behavior is part of social development PRIMATE CULTURE Culture Shared, learned behavior Observation Solutions to problems Cultural traditions Behavioral patterns Link human and non-human primates Tool use not just for humans Regional variation Culture: Monkeys Japanese Macaque Hot springs Sweet potato washing Baboons Flamingo hunting Capuchin Monkeys Nut cracking with rocks Leaf sponges Opening clams Culture: Apes Gorillas Testing water depth Balancing/stabilization Orangutan Nest building Leaf Umbrella Twigs for insect dipping Chimp Twig dipping Stones to crack nuts Wooden spears Palm frond pestle Ape potential Humans use culture to greater extent BUT… Stone tools ANTHROPOLOGY 2200 Don’t modify stones Have capability to do so Bonobo Kanzi taught Language Unique use in humans Chimp Washoe learned ASL Taught infant Loulis to sign Koko the gorilla can sign QUICK REVIEW 25 MC/15 FITB/4 SA 6 Characteristics of Mammals lactation hair/fur jaw is one bone 3 ear bones diaphragm artery to left 5 characteristics of primates nails bulla fo
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