ANTHROP 2201 - FULL NOTES for the course

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTHROP 2201
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
ANTHROPOLOGY 2201  INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY Anthropology Anthropos – people (man) Logia – study Study of people Human history To Be Human Unique combination of 5 attributes Bipedalism Walking on 2 legs Material culture / tools Speech Hunting (tools and strategies) Domesticated foods (plants and animals) Anthropology Study of humans 4 Subfields Cultural Study of human culture Study of shared, learned behavior Patterns of behavior Political organization and social organization Rights of passage Puberty, marriage, child birth Ethnography Book or writing of a single culture Ethnology Book or righting comparing cultures Participant observation Archaeology Study of patterns of behavior in the past Use material record Trash midden - trash heap Tomb Raiding vs. Contextual Analysis Linguistics Recording dying languages Grouping language families Study phonetics Understanding how words are used How they change Track population movement Physical / Biological Biological and bio-cultural Humans past and present Primatology Study of non-human primates Paleoanthropology Study of early hominins Evolution Crux of biological anthropology Human adaptation Forensics Legal system Holistic Integrating all aspects Paleoanthropology and Human Evolution Primate-human evolution Biological and geological background Theory of evolution Origins of human species Bio-archaeology Human remains in the past 100 years + Anthropology as a discipline Can the four subfields exist cohesively? Yes! Anth is the science of humans How? By asking the same questions Add depth to each other’s works Specialized, but ultimate goal is broad How humans have changed and are changing HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGY Scientific Method Research strategy Repeatable Make observations Create a question Hypothesis Test Analyze and conclude Repeat the steps Theory Systems of ideas intended to explain something Why is theory important? Determines interpretations of the past How archaeology is used Paradigm shift Shift in basic assumptions Theories develop through change Necessary to better understand the past Driven by constant change Origins of Archaeology Nabonidus, Babylon City of Ur King Thutmose IV, Egypt Sphinx Reverence, not exploration of past Renaissance Europe First evidence of excavation to recover and explore Greek, Roman, and Celtic emphasis Sir Francis Bacon: Scientific method Not yet part of archaeology th 18 century More sophisticated techniques in archaeology Happening elsewhere James Hutton: Uniformitarianism same process at work in present happened in past Same processes at work Ridiculed th Early 19 Century Recovering artifacts… BUT Human made vs. Natural processes?? Thunderstones, arrowheads Interactions with cultures Expanding empires Changes views th 19 Century Happening at the same time… Jean Baptiste Lamarck: physical traits Inheritance of acquired traits Charles Lyell: revisited Uniformitarianism Charles Darwin: On the Origin of Species Two major developments in archaeology Three-age system Christian Thomsen Cataloging artifacts into time periods Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age Classification based on material used Assumptions? Tools were not used at the same time Get better as you go on Determination of age-depth in antiquity Directly linked to the age of the earth New hominin discoveries Humans and their early ancestors Discovered in Germany and Java Uniformitarianism Evolution All changing scientist’s perspectives Convincing the Community Jaques Boucher de Perthes Book on tools and animals Lyell is convinced John Lubbock Closer look at stone age Differences in appearance Divides into: Neolithic Paleolithic 20 Century Development of method and theory ID Native American cultural groups in archaeological record Early 20 century excavation for WPA project Often ignore culture Want artifacts Paradigm shift V. Gordon Childe Patterns and mapping across Europe Emphasis on cultural history Nature of prehistory Connecting between artifacts, and social and economic relations Two revolutions Neolithic: appearance of settled villages Urban: appearance of cities and complex governments Archaeology as a science Shift opens door to look at much more Incorporate statistics A.C. Spaulding Cluster attributes to see changes over time Apply to social aspects New archaeology 1960s Processual Archaeology Based on scientific method and supported by development of theory Lewis Binford Archaeology is either science or nothing Rooted in 1960s social environment Not good enough to interpret artifacts Must ask the right questions Induction: inferences based on artifacts Deduction: inferences based on laws and models Systems theory View culture as systems that produces steady state Can see rapid change Archaeology and Federal Legislation Around the same time National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) Section 106: take into account effects of building on historic or prehistoric sites Anything with federal funding Cultural Resources Management Identify sites, minimize/avoid adverse effects on historic or prehistoric sited Postprocessual Archaeology 1980s Ian Hodder Too scientific, too removed Archaeology should understand past from perspective of people who lived it Etic: approach and understand of culture from outside (processual) Emic: culture can only be understood from inside perspective Context of artifacts Do not emphasis hypothesis Rather interpretations on Contextual data Interpretations are ongoing Competing views Processual: separate past from present Post-processual: embraces present and the view it brings to interpreting the past NEED TO KNOW Know people and contributions Know broad time periods and what happened in them 18 , 19 centuries SITE METHODS Why Archaeology? Objects from past Understand lives from the past Look at: Distribution of sites Distribution within sites Depends on the goal of the research Methods How do we find the data necessary to make confident inferences about the past? CONTEXT Four phases Survey Testing Excavation/recovery Analysis Types of Archaeology ‘Traditional’Archaeology Underwater Archaeology Site preservation Causes bias Not everything preserves Post depositional processes Once on/in earth natural processes occur Volcanic ash, silt, avalanche What preserves? Stone tools Pottery Building and parts of buildings Organic remains Site formation Combination of: Geological deposits Sterile layers (soil) Anthropogenic deposits Look for anthropogenic Depositional units Areas where things are piled together Middens (trash) What to look for: Features: An immovable structure or layer in the ground of significance Primary refuse: Items left exactly where they fell by ancient people Secondary refuse: Items placed in a location which removed them from vicinity of living quarters Trash heap (midden) Survey Map physical remains of human activity Site survey Surface survey Global positioning system (GPS) Geophysical techniques Ground-penetrating radar Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Consolidates geographical images Need points of reference (total station) Overly images The point Patterns in the area The site in reference to: topography (rivers/mountains), soil types, etc. Best chance to find a site Testing and Sampling Cannot excavate everything How to decide? Random sampling Little bias involved Test pits Processual archaeology based on sampling and probability Find representative sample Apply statistics Excavate (set up) Construct units Placement based in sampling and survey Size depends on goal 2x2, 4x4, 4x6 etc Orient direction Vertical See all layers for history horizontal looking for specific layer or time Excavation Stratigraphy Strata Law of superposition Not always so straightforward Burials Extend if necessary Levels Start with arbitrary Look for cultural Soil types, taponomy, Harris matrix Recording and Recovery Record/map/measure everything Grid Size depends on site and question Datum point Reference point for depth of site Provenience In situ Open more/extend units if necessary Dig Backhoes, shovels, trowels, pick-axe, dental picks Screen dirt Wet screening Floatation All depends on the question Always keep context Without context, cant be studied Archaeology is destructive, cant put it back Analysis Lab analysis Sort material Artifacts: Human modified objects Lithic, ceramic, metallurgy Eco-facts: Biological organisms or geologic processes Seeds, faunal, human skeleton Quantification: Counting large numbers of recovered materials Artifacts Classify objects Major categories Typology: Artifact type Change over time Attribute: Characteristics Material, shape, color, size Stone Artifacts Cutting, projectile Inferring behavior Morphology Function and style Wear Experimental replication Ceramic artifacts Function and style Materials and migration Residue from cooking Ceremonial artifacts Within burials Social status differences Customs Eco-facts Establish patterns Bones NISP Number of species present Complete specimens MNI Minimum number of individuals Number of individuals, complete or not Faunal: information? Seasonality Domesticated vs. wild Skeletal Remains Demography Age, sex breakdown Sex determination Pelvis Functional differences Skull Diet Disease Health Stress Migration Affinity Biological relationships Trauma Cultural modification Cranial binding Jade tooth inlay Putting pieces together Patterns of past Migration Cultural connections Subsistence Social construction DATING TECHNIQUES IN ARCHAEOLOGY Dating artifacts Known date of manufacture Coins Rare Seriation Frequencies between contexts and time Relative Dating Not directly linked to dates Stratigraphic correlation Law of super position Fluorine dating Ground water, only bone Biostratigraphy Faunal structural changes Paleo-magnetism Magnetic particles in rock Absolute Dating Stated in calendar years Measure amount of radioactive decay Half-life Potassium-argon (K/Ar) Rock Matrix HL -1.25 billion years Radiocarbon dating (carbon -14) Organic material HL -5700 years Interpreting Dates Intersite Between two or more Intrasite Within single site Describe patterns of behavior over time Absolute dating Longevity of occupation Artifact or fossil date range (2.5-3.5 mya) HUMAN EVOLUTION Forces Driving Change Natural Selection Act on present variation Environmental changes Selection against traits, not for them Gene Flow and Genetic Drift Gene Flow Migration Gene exchange across populations Genetic Drift Random change in frequency of alleles Chance events Bottleneck, founders effect Mutation Change in genetic code Only source of new genetic material Neutral, advantageous, deleterious Hominin evolution Hominin: Humans and their earliest ancestors Change in time and structure Epochs Point in time Pliocene: 2.0-5.0 mya Pleistocene: 0.01-2.0 mya Holocene: Present – 0.01 mya Structure Walking on two feet, brain expansion What came first? Bipedalism or big brain? Bipedalism (Lucy) Bio-cultural evolution Definition of a Hominin Locomotion Bipedalism Later development Larger brain size Tool manufacturing Language Pre HOMO Hominin Patterns Each had restricted geographic ranges Still somewhat tied to the trees No great increase in brain or body size Early HOMO evolutionary trends Smalled teeth Less Prognathism Brain size expansion 400 cc  600-900 cc Defining the genus HOMO Physical attributes Relatively large brain Small face and jaws (including teeth) Behavioral attributes Dependence on material culture for survival Homo Habilis Found only in Africa Wider distribution that earlier Hominin Species expansion First Homo found with tools Tool use Brain expansion Oldowan industry Core tool Single face hammer stone Preconceived shape Tool making and use now central to adaptation Tools increase capability to eat greater range of food Homo erectus: A new kind of Hominin Increase in: Body size Brain size Different cranial shape Brain organization and enlargement Changes in limb proportion First obligate biped Found outside of Africa Geographic diversity One genus: Homo Species number debated Tall stature Large brain Closer to modern human size Lengthening of limbs and legs Obligate biped Going global Evolved in east Africa AfricaGeorgiaJavaAsia ergaster East Africa “Nariokotome Boy” Nearly complete skeleton Almost 6 ft. tall at 11 Ethiopia Female pelvis Large brained babies Direct ancestor of Asian and European H. erectus Dmanisi Oldest hominin outside of Africa Georgia Indonesia “Java Man” first recognized human ancestor increase in brain size Ngangong, Java Later than H. erectus in the rest of the world China Similar shape to Java finds Zhoukoudian Cave Fire? (maybe) Lantian Fire! Europe Oldest Hominin in W. Europe Beeches Pit, England Burnt animal bones Anthropogenic layers What accounts for these rapid change? Cultural expansion Bio-cultural evolution Tool technology Oldowan tools Building toolbox Achulian tools Found at most Homo erectus sites Not widespread in Asia Bi-face, hand-axe Material from other places Clactonian industry England H. erectus sites More forethought and planning Able to process foods differently Fire Use Greatest contributor to human evolution Bigger brain = higher energy budget Nutrition: Breaks down the food Releases nutrients Less work to digest Less toxins Better nutrition = better reproductive fitness, larger body size Protection Don’t need trees or arboreal adaptations Promotes cooperation Pre-modern humans Paleo-environment Pleistocene (Ice Age) Advances and retreats of continental sheets Glacial periods Less rainfall, and climate, desert expansion Restricted movement Interglacial periods More rainfall Movement possible Northern regions more affected Climate change everywhere Geographic dispersal Widely distributed in the OW Africa, Asia, Europe H neanderthalansis 175,000~30,000 ya roots to ~500 kym contemporaneous with H sapiens may have interacted evolutionary enigma Europe and western Asia Structure Larger brain than modern H sapiens Very robust Large muscles Larger bodies Cold weather adaptations La Chapelle-aux-saints Old Man of La Chapelle 40 yr at time of death, intentional burial missing teeth care for the elderly prehistoric bad day Moula-Guercy Cave Broken skeletal fragments Processed for consumption Canabalism Shanidar Cave Shanidar 1 male severe traumatic injuries but lived to be 30-45 yrs communal care Paleolithic culture Prepared-core technology Levallois technique No longer a core tool Now using flakes from the core Controlling flake size and shape Intelligence: knowing how to break the rock the right way Built temporary shelters and lived in caves Hunted Simple technology, lots of animals remains Continues use of fire Mousterian tool industry Worked flakes More forethought and planning and skill Tools for different functions (scrapers, points, knives) Frison effect Re-sharpening changed shape Hunters Close range weapons Lots of injuries Culture Speech Capable of speech Hyoid morphology Gene influencing speech production identical to modern H sapiens Ritual behavior (burials) Intentional burials Possible associated grave goods Genetic evidence mtDNA and nuclear DNA mtDNA shows more dissimilarities between Neanderthal and modern H sapiens But only a tiny portion of the human genome Nuclear DNA shows some similarities between the two AND, better represents the total genome Some European populations have 5-6% Neanderthal DNA More evidence needed, but probable connection ORIGINS OF MODERN HUMANS Homo sapiens 190,000 ya – present fully transitioned to modern ~25,000 ya Expanded geographic region Africa, Near East, Asia, Europe, Australia, NW Early Homo sapiens First in Africa, last in Europe Modern Human Evolution and Dispersal 3 hypothesis Out of Africa Model Complete Replacement Hybridization Model Partial Replacement Multiregional Model Regional Continuity Modern H. sapiens dispersal AfricaNear EastE. AsiaAustraliaEuropeN. AmericaS. America Africa Omo Kibish, Ethiopia 195,000 ya Oldest in Africa (and the World) Herto, Ethiopia 160,000-154,000 ya near modern human (transitional form) Supporting African origin Near East Skhul Cave, Israel 130,000-100,000 ya earliest modern humans outside Africa date overlap with Neanderthal sites (120kya) in the same region Qafzeh Cave, Isael Within Neanderthal layers Europe Oase Cave, Romania 35,000 ya, oldest in Europe Cro-Magnon, France 28,000 ya extensively studied since 1868 Portugal 24,000 ya 4 year old child Modern Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis traits Climate and Culture Still rapid climate shifts H. sapiens have cultural/ technological advantage An age of innovation New inventions (fish hooks, arrow points, needles) New materials Bone, ivory, antler Exploiting environment in new ways Middle Stone Age Culture (300,000-40,000 ya) Aterian North Africa Arrow head, small bifacial tools Howiesons Poort South Africa Several parts for arrow heads Bone Tools Barbed points Knife Katanda, DRoC Oldest tools of this kind Upper Paleolithic Culture (40,000-11,000 ya) Paleo-environment Tundra and Steppe Many herbivores (bison, mammoth, reindeer) Systematic hunting and fishing Highest population densities to date Several transitional industries Szeletian (Eastern Europe) Ulluzian (Italy) Chatelperronian (France and Spain) Neanderthal cultures? Similar to Middle Paleolithic stone tools Aurignacian industry Earliest upper Paleolithic industry Acry-sure-cure, France Evidence of H. sapiens and Neanderthal interaction Gavettian Industry Atlatl Magdalenian industry Harpoons and sewing kits Bow and Arrow? More advanced and specialized tools Burials Red ochre Burial artifacts Sungir, Russia Ivory beads, mammoth-tusk spear, ivory daggers Higher status? Two children Dolní Vētenice, Moravia Pendants, ivory beads Upper Paleolithic Art Widely practiced Cave paintings Lascaux and Grotte Chauvet (France), Altamire (Spain), pinnacle point (S. Africa) Ritualistic, communication, aesthetic Hunting, fertility, trance visions Stone sculpture/ mobility art Venus of Wellendorf Engraved tools, and tool handles Clay figurines Czech Republic Oldest use of ceramic technology (older than pottery) Predates pottery innovation by 15,000 years Mutual influence between art and technological advances Mixing paints, applying paints, tools for easier carving Structures and Subsistence Structure location Distribution of artifacts and eco-facts Hunter-gather groups Small, mobile communities BIG PICTURE Culmination of 2 million years of cultural and biological development Slow change early on (pre-austrolopiths through australopiths ) ~4 million years Rapid change with accumulation of cultural tradition (genus homo) ~2 million years Brain size (intelligence), body size, locomotion, tools All adaptations to the environment Shows our flexibility and success DOMESTICATION AND AGRICULTURE Domestication Substinence changes in the Holocene Climate Change and Culture 121 ya warming trend (Holocence epoch) Animal and plant species started disappearing Need for readily available foods leads to domestication Agricultural Transition Climate supports environment growth More rapid horticulture changes New foods, New Adaptations Sustenance patterns Hunter-gatherers to agriculturalists Farming for food and producing food Slow incorporation (trial and error) Organization of society Among the most important adaptive shifts in out evolution Biologically and culturally made us who we are today Definitions of Agriculture Settlement (community) Development of permanent villages Technology Tools for daily tasks Domestication Relationship between humans, plants, and animals Early Theory of Agriculture Lewis Henry Morgan Progress (cultural evolution) “savagery” to “barbarianism” removal of humans from nature value judgment motives? Current Theory David Rhindos Co-evolutionary process between plants, animals, and people Biological theory Adopting Agriculture Major centers of development Middle East North and Sounth China Africa The Andes Central Mexico Diffusion in the other areas Domestication The change for the wild form Artificial selection by humans Domesticated Animals Dogs 15,000 ya self domestication? 7,000-8,000 ya cats self domestication? Goats, sheep, cattle, pigs Meat, milk, wool, tools Change in Diet 12,000 ya less varied diet Super foods Wheat, corn, barley, and rice Today 2/3 of our calories and protein come from these cereal grains domesticated in the early Holocene Rice: Most consumed plant since domestication Corn: Next more consumed Spread of Agriculture Diffusion out from primary centers Trade routes Cultural contact, spread of knowledge Results of Domestication Population growth Sedentation (living in one place) Foundation for the rise of: Complex societies Cities Increased sophisticated technology Biological changes (negative) Changing face (masticatory – functional hypothesis Means there is less muscle from H.E. to H.S. Diet and Biology Corn Lack nutrients Processing techniques Depletion of health Need to be supplemented Problematic when introduced to populations Milk Milk sugars Dairy farming interacts with natural selection Adaptive trade-off? Environment Competition for resources = development of organized warfare Increase population numbers – increased environmental demands (carrying capacity) Environmental population Soil and landscape degradation Over-hunting (wolf-key stone species) Affects other species if hunter too much Biology Higher infection and parasites Close living conditions Reduction in growth and development Adult height Vitamin definciencies More tooth defects Linear enamel hypoplasia (stress) Cavities and plaque Why practice agriculture? What is the evolutionary advantage of farming given all its negatives? Increased fertility. Its all about species survival Transition to Agriculture Subsistence changes in the Middle East Fertile Crescent Israel, Jordan, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Iran, and France Climate supports crop growth Gradual transition to agriculture Nutufian Early Neolithic Late Neolithic Stage 1 Kebarun and Geometric Kebaron 25-15 kya Hunter-Gatherers Highly mobile (seasonal migration) Bladelet stone tools No domestication yet Ohalo, Norther Israel Grass nuts perfectly preserved Burial with possible ritual feature Stage 2 The Nutufian 15-12 kya Sedentary Communities First permanent structures (stone walls) Malloha, North Israel 12 or more circular structures Still seasonal movement? Younger-Dryas event (Little ice age) Global climate change Fertile crescent climate stress Very quick changes Uninhabitable areas Reduced nutrition populations Technology Lunate Blade lets Harvesting wild grasses (sickle polish) Grinding stones Materials from long distances Trade Shell beads and sea shells Domestication No plant domestication Abu Hureyra, Syria Wild plant remains Varied diet Domesticated dogs Change in morphology from wild form (shorter snout) Found in burials with humans Stage 3 Early Neolithic (12,000-8,500 ya) Climate change Two periods within early Neolithic Pre-pottery Neolithic A End on younger Dryas event Pre-pottery Neolithic B Climate improvement Settlements Middens and storage pit frequent Communal structures Jerico Tower Jerf el Ahmar, Syria Settlement planning A Settlement size increase Proximity decreases (close living) B More dense villages Need for institutional structures Issues of property rights Technology Shirt from bladelets to arrowheads Manufactured blades Used as sickles Many grinding stones Ground stone axes Plaster (B) Line floors and ritual purposes Ritual “Birth of the gods” Many symbolic artifacts Hidden rituals Plastered skulls Ancestor worship, society cohesion Display rituals Jericho Tower, large stone sculptures Rituals of daily life Ceramic figurines Domestication A Evidence of harvesting wild plants Domesticated dogs B Plants Farming developed across Middle East Domesticated wheat, barley, pulses, and legumes Strong rachis Grains now ply and important role in diet Animals Sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs Stage 4 Late Neolithic (8,500-7,000 ya) Changing settlements End of Early Neolithic Decline in number and size of sites Site abandonment Human-induced ecological crisis? Environmental degradation Shift to herding animals Settlement and Rituals Some less dense communities Other continue dense living conditions Catalhoyuk, Turkey 9,000-8,000 ya Very densely populated Wall art (ritual space?) Hand prints Technology Development of pottery Cooking pots, jars, bowls Made by hand Many earlier stone tool types abandoned Sickles and simple stone tools used Domestication Decline in hunting for subsistence Increase in domesticated goats Continue to harvest previously domesticated plants Wheat, barley, Legumes, and Pulses Important points Slow shift to agriculture in the Middle East Once the shift has happened it took off Natufian Small, permanent settlements Early Neolithic A: community planning and monumental architecture B: Increased density with plan and animal domestication Late Neolithic Pottery, decrease in population density AGRICULTURE IN EUROPE Agriculture in Europe Spread from Middle East to Europe No indigenous plants cultivated Dramatic reorganization of local societies 8,500 ya : Southeastern Europe 7,500 ya : Central and Western Europe 6,000 ya : the rest of Western Europe How did it Spead to Europe? Language Dispersal hypothesis Only formal hypothesis Farming package introduced by Indo-European speakers Romance, Slavic, and Baltic languages Hunter-gatherers were completely replaced by farmers Hunter-gatherers were passive compared to agriculturalists Agriculture resulted from the interactions between migrating people and local communities pre-disposed to domestication More widely accepted because of more evidence for less passive than with language dispersal states Pre-agricultural Europe Mesolithic cultures (11,000 ya) Manipulating environment Offshore fishing Burning the landscape More resources (plants and animals) Lepenski Vir, Siberia 7,400 – 7,600 ya (overlap with farmers) Fishing and hunting deer Large structures Mesolithic Cultures Complex societies Not passive cultures No need to farm No population increase or food shortage But 6,000 ya selective domestication Why switch? Reflection of changing social organization Adoption of Agriculture Linear Band Keramik (LBK) First farming cultures in Europe 7,200 ya Farmed Middle Eastern plants and animals Long houses made of timber Largest buildings in Europe LBK culture spread Uniform through Central and Western Europe Rapid spread Interconnections between local populations and migrating ones Trade with Mesolithic cultures LBK Culture: Violence Talheim, Germany Mass burial Blunt force and projectile trauma Otzi, the iceman Found in 1991 on Austrian-Italian boarder Lived ~5,000 ya Clothing, tools, medicinal plants, canteen (birch bark), tattoos Arrowhead in his left shoulder and cut on his hands Might have been escaping a village attack? PALEOETHNOBOTANY Paleoethnobotany Studying past cultures through analysis of their interaction with plants Based on preservation Best for preservation Dry climates Waterlogged conditions (bogs) Absence of oxygen Methods Macro-botanicals Not usually preserves Unless burned Bound within soil Floatation Botanicals float, soil sinks Analysis Identify seed species Wild vs. domesticated Seed and rachis size Distribution of number and type of seeds Spatial organization of activities Food storage, food preparation EARLY AND MIDDLE WOODLAND PERIOD Eastern Agricultural Complex (EAC) More mixed subsistence (horticulture) Seeds and vegetable crops Sumpweed, sunflower, maygrass, gourds Gourds multi use: seeds, meat, and storage Mound Builders 3,200-1,700 ya Ohio River Valley mounds (earthworks) 10,000 mounds Early Woodland: Adena Culture Middle Woodland: Hopewell culture Adeana Settlement Early woodland (3,000-2,000 ya) Increasing sedentary Dispers
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