Midterm II package.docx

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Ohio State University
Business Admin:Marketing & Log
BUSML 4201
Robert Smith

Motivation I: The preconditions (Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test) A. Exchange Theory - Behavior is like an exchange and human will only perform behavior that brings benefits - E.g. maintaining a relationship - Understand benefits= gain- loss (very simple) - I think he will just ask which theory talks about the reason for having motivation B. Background information of hierarchy of needs Fig 1: structure of hierarchy of needs Order of satisfaction: human satisfy needs according to the following orders: 1) preconditions (will be discussed later) 2) deficiency needs 3) drives states - Founder: Maslow - Key nature of needs satisfaction: i) If certain needs are not satisfied (i.e. love), it can cause psychological and physical illness ii) hierarchy of needs is a type of humanistic needs, which is the opposite of abnormal psychology iii) He thinks human has rights to satisfy needs Checkpoint question: What is the problem of the third nature of hierarchy of needs? He may ask “Which of the following is NOT true about hierarchy of needs?” 1) Introduction to motivation i) Desire vs needs (straight forward, and I am not going to repeat the definition again) - However, remember desire is culturally determined ii) Nature of hierarchy of needs - Prepotency: One type of needs is satisfied in front of others (e.g. you will satisfy hunger needs before the needs of sense of belonging) - Multiple motives and ascending the hierarchy: the fact that you can engage to satisfy several types of needs at the same time, as long as it is reasonably satisfied - Striving cycle: the fact that human will feel relaxed once certain types of needs are satisfied (This is VERY important because it is related to later chapters) iii) Types of needs - Deficiency needs: lower needs Can cause illness if unsatisfied (refer to previous page!) - Growth needs: higher needs - Requirement for satisfying needs: functional autonomy - Checkpoint question: Which one, deficiency needs or growth needs, has diminishing marginal  returns? C. Preconditions 1) Human are striving organisms (refer to striving cycles above) - Satisfaction is short-lived (any marketing implications?) 2) Human are curious - Consumer promiscuity - Help to stay happy despite diminishing marginal return 3) Human must have freedom - Reactance effect 4) Human has needs to understand and know - Curiosity for information seeking - Help to satisfy higher needs 5) Self-expressive - Perform for intrinsic motives, an expression of self-state - Express some state of the individual - Opposite of coping behavior: extrinsic motives, reward and punishment Comparison between coping and expressive behavior **The same behavior can occur from expressive or coping reasons - Check point question: What’s wrong if human does not possess the preconditions? Motivation II: Deficiency needs (Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test) A. Needs within the hierarchy 1) Physiological needs*** This part would be the focus of this chapter for sure i) Sensory needs - Procrastination: put aside things that will hinder the satisfaction of present sensory needs - Psychological hedonism vs ethical hedonism  Problem with that??Are those claims really true? No, what if it hurts later? Solution: avoid pleasure that cause pain or dissatisfaction in a long run - What’s the best? long lasting and mild pleasure should be the best e.g. friendship ii) Homeostasis needs Drive object substitute: - Definition: chemical equilibrium partially satisfy needs - Cycle of homeostatic needs Fig 1: Cycle of homeostatic need satisfaction 2) Safety needs - Physical (physical security) and psychological safety (i.e. freedom from fears and chaos) What is the - What responses does the threat to safety produce? Fight or flight!! difference/relationship between drive object and drive state? Any examples? 3) Belongingness and love needs i) Belongingness needs - Deficiency based (involves diminishing returns) - social pain causes physical pain - implications to daily lives: increased awareness of other people, think ambiguous situation threatening ii) love needs Base your self­ esteem on domains that  - intimacy: revealing the true (intrinsic) self would not easily fluctuate.  FYI, contingent means it will go ups  and downs! 4) esteem needs - biggest trouble and even animals have struggles in it - esteem matrix (approval of others, intrinsic/extrinsic) intrinsic= high self-esteem; vice versa (recall Motivation I, self-express approval of others = high social esteem - problems with low esteem needs: undermine growth and learning, and problems in physical and mental health - solution: self-affirmation, developing non-contingent self-esteem, focus on growth Fig 2: structure of hierarchy of needs from Motivation I Chapter B. Neurotic needs Order of satisfaction: human satisfy needs according to the following - Recall this… orders: - Unnatural needs states 1) preconditions (will be discussed - Cause**: later) 2) deficiency needs 3) drives states i) Deprivation ii) Affluence When needs are satisfied, we are in satisfaction state, which means reduction in drive state, relaxed (recall Motivation I, which states that human will feel relaxed for a while after satisfying needs) , and positive emotions. C. Summary of Motivation I and Motivation II - 5 preconditions + 8 deficiency needs = 13 - They should be satisfied and at healthy levels - ALL adults have neurotic needs Motivation III: Growth Needs (Bold and italics are concepts that I predict Robert Smith will ask on the test) A. Introduction Fig 1: structure of hierarchy of needs Order of satisfaction: human satisfy needs according to the following orders: - Recall this… 1) preconditions (will be discussed later) - Nature (must be on the test! Especially the part 2) deficiency needs 3) drives states that talks about diminishing return and potency) 4) neurotic needs (will be discussed later) i) Universal, non-cultural 5) growth needs (We are here now!) ii) Require satisfaction from deficiency needs (See Fig 1) iii) Never ending, implying NO Diminishing Marginal of Return!!! iv) No equal potency (recall in Motivation I Chapter, we say the hierarchy of needs pyramid does have prepotency; however, within the category of growth needs, there is NO such thing.) v) Meta-Motivation Quotient (MMQ): proportion of motivation devoted to meta- motives (What is the implication of having high MMQ? (1) Psychologically healthy, (2) more pro-social [like considering interests of others before yoursel,], (3) individualism and self-identity) B. Different types of meta-motives (Don’t memorize, just recognize) Robert Smith only throws out a bunch of terms, but he never organizes them well. I go through all of them and provide the following categories Category Pro-social Psychology Self identity  1) Community: - Self- 1) Learning - Justice sufficiency - Effortlessness functional autonomy - Goodness - Perfection Recall Motivation I 2) Socializing personality: - Meaningfulness - Comprehensive - Playfulness - Order - Uniqueness - Aliveness 2) Philosophy - Unity - Completion - simplicity C. Requirements for growth needs 1) Psychological capacity - Learning: Elaborative learner - Motivation model: prerequisite has to be fulfilled; otherwise it is called human diminution, which causes physical and mental disorder (neuroses). - Elimination of defense mechanism: recall the internal model chapter, which states that human can defend new information by many means to refuse accepting new and valid information. 2) Personality Motivation - Have intrinsic motivation to grow and have courage to pick the growth options - Honesty (e.g. to understand your weakness, don’t find excuses that kind of thing) Then what actions do we need to take? 1) Erasing personal history - Reduce expectations so that others cannot predict your behavior - Perform adaptive behavior 2) Losing self-importance and gain self- worth - Self-importance (telling people how awesome you are social frustration) - Self-worth (through self-actualization, growth) 3) Acting without believing - People behave based upon the “samples” (internal model) they have, which may be untrue due to small sample size - Should behave in an “experimental-basis” to test if new behavior can lead to changes 4) Being Inaccessible - Do not interact with people in a way that provides high value all the time due to diminishing marginal return  Resist excessive interactions 5) Overcome petty tyrants - Tyrants: asshole that brings trou
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