BusML4202 Midterm 2 tricky concepts reminder
The concepts included in this notes are the ones that I get wrong and they are
very tricky!! High chance to be on the exam!!
Attitude and scaling
- understand the difference between Likert scale and graphing continuum.
He doesn’t ask much in the sample midterm so I don’t think there‘s a need to worry about it.
- Remember the major steps of setting a survey: 1) What should be asked, 2) The layout, 3) and
finishing and refining questionnaire
- Understand questionnaire definition and objectives
- Remember a questionnaire should not be a burden to respondents, have to be clear, avoid
making assumptions and the solutions to each problem
i) avoid complexity: use complete sentence to ask questions
ii) double- barreled: one question, one item
iii) avoid vague wordings in terms of time (i.e. regularly)
iv) avoid burdensome questions in terms of time frame
v) avoid making assumptions: allow respondents to skip questions
vi) make sure no overlapping in questionnaire options
e.g. Don’t say stuff like 1-10, 10-20
vii) leaded and loaded questions: clue respondents what to answer
solution: third person technique
purpose of funneling and how that relates to the objective of setting up a questionnaire
- In an observation study, you can observe physical behavior and characteristics, but definitely
NOT cognitive process (no one can do mind reading!!)
- observational research is less likely to have social desirability bias than survey research (that’s
why observational research is preferred to questionnaire/survey research!)
Reason: you can have biased wordings in a questionnaire! For observation, you can have
greater control ( if it is contrived) or even rely on machinery for observation!
- main difference between human vs machine observation
human: they observe
machine: they record e.g. physiological observation
- Dimensions of observational research
definition of contrived: artificial, physiological measure, control extraneous factors
know the definition of direct and indirect observation!!
- Cons of observation research: applicable to real world situation?? (external validity) Experimental research
- The disadvantage of one group pretest-posttest design is extraneous variable are largely
uncontrolled (It doesn’t even have a control group btw)
- The disadvantage of static group is it has selection bias (lack of randomization)
- Matching (one-to-one match) can be used to replace randomization.
- Randomization is crucial in posttest-only control group design because it helps guarantee
experimental and control group are equal
- understand extraneous variables (testing effects, history, maturation, and mortality),
especially the difference between maturation and history
- understand how external and internal validity is related to lab and field experiments.
Review of basic statistics Part I and II
- difference between population parameter and sample statistics
Again, is the value of parameter/statistics known or unknown?
Again, which one can be depicted by a smooth line? Sample/population?!
This is very