ECON 3820 Study Guide - Final Guide: Claudia Goldin, Baby Boom, Equal Pay For Equal Work

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Published on 24 May 2016
School
Ohio State University
Department
Economics
Course
ECON 3820
Professor
ECONOMICS 3820: Gender in Labor markets
Spring 2016
Final Review
This exam will have 10-10 point questions on it. Question 1 & 2 will
come from 1-5, 3 & 4 will come from 6-10, 5 & 6 will come from 11-15,
and 7 & 8 will come from 16-20 and 9 & 10 from 21-25. Note, I reserve
the right to change any numbers and the direction of changes
(increases or decreases), marital status, etc. in these questions for the
test.
1. Using a graph show how each of the following labor markets (assumed to be
competitive and initially in equilibrium) is affected by the following changes.
Make sure your graphs are completely labeled—indicating whether the supply
or demand in each market increases or decreases and the impact on equilibrium
wages and employment.
a. Labor market for elementary school teachers.
Baby boom (or bust).
b. Labor market for Math & Science professors.
Wages in high tech industries rise (or decrease).
c. Labor market for low-skilled workers.
New federal welfare legislation requires most recipients work.
d. Labor market for workers with just a high school diploma.
The workplace becomes more computerized and technically sophisticated.
e. Labor market for workers who hold at least a college degree.
The workplace becomes more computerized and technically sophisticated.
2. When the United State initially industrialized did Married Women’s Labor Force
Participation increase or decrease? Explain why.
*Decreased -> Separation of work & home
- Production previously concentrated in household -> Factory/ Office
- Reduced burden of housekeeping -> but didn’t advance status of women
- Women continued to center activities around the home
- Productive role and status -> Initially declined
At first, a step back with the separation of work and home. As service sector
increased it paved the way for true female independence. From the colonial period
through early industrialization married women labor force participation appears to
have decreased. Married women were active on family farms and enterprising
during the colonial period but were not employed extensively outside the home as
industrialization became established. Their participation declined subsequently
with industrialization, but then began to increase as economic development
proceeded further.
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3. Historically, have black women had higher or lower labor force participation rates
than white women? To what two factors does Claudia Goldin attribute the
differences in rates?
Higher
1) Greater necessity for black women to work -> Lower wages and
education, increased discrimination.
2) Stigma -> less prevalent for working, married black women.
African American women participation rates were considerably higher. About
23% of black wives were employed. Most women work in domestic work, or
in agriculture in the rural south. These high participation rates were a result of
the greater necessity for black women to work, lower wages and education,
increased discrimination. The second factor was the fact that there were fewer
stigmas for black married women to participate in the labor force.
4. Briefly explain why we have seen less specialization within marriage, ie. more
dual income families. Your explanation should focus on changes in men’s and
women’s comparative advantages in market and home production respectively.
Married women’s earnings -> Important source of family income today
Dual-earner couples:
a. Income 40% higher than only husband working
b. Greater bargaining power w/in marriages -> women’s improved
qualifications & increasing labor market opp.s + declines in real earnings
of less educated men -> increased % of wives w/ higher salary than
husbands
c. As husbands/ wives relative earnings change -> more instances of both
equal and/or wife primary earner
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5. Explain the differences between men and women by marital status on time spent
performing market and housework. How have these differences changed over
time? Explain the differences in time spent in primary care of children for
married mothers, single mothers, and married men.
Married vs. Single moms:
- Married:
o Spend more time w/ kids -> advantage of 2nd parent to coordinate
schedules -> allow for more time
- Single-employed:
o More likely to face lower paying/ less flexible jobs
o Lack of partner to help in household care for kids
Married Men:
- Have increased amount of time spent w/ kids in both routine & overall
activities since 1985
- However, large gender gap remains in time spent w/kids -> biological
reasons:
o Women -> nurture
o Men -> Worker
6. Suppose that you have the following information for Country X Note, I reserve
the right to change the numbers in this example for the test
Population: 200,000
Employed: 160,000
Unemployed: 20,000
a. Calculate the size of the labor force, the labor force participation rate, and the
unemployment rate.
LF = employed + unemployed = 180,000; LFPR = (LF/pop) * 100 = 90%;
Unemployment = (# unemployed/ LF) = 11.11%
b. Provide examples of individuals who would be classified as “not in the labor
force.”
Individuals who work less than 15 hours/ week as unpaid family workers, who
only do unpaid work in the household, only volunteer work, prisoners.
c. Suppose there was an economic downturn. How would you expect this to
affect the number employed, the number unemployed, and the number
classified as “not in the labor force”? Explain.
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Document Summary

This exam will have 10-10 point questions on it. Question 1 & 2 will come from 1-5, 3 & 4 will come from 6-10, 5 & 6 will come from 11-15, and 7 & 8 will come from 16-20 and 9 & 10 from 21-25. Make sure your graphs are completely labeled indicating whether the supply or demand in each market increases or decreases and the impact on equilibrium wages and employment. Wages in high tech industries rise (or decrease). New federal welfare legislation requires most recipients work. Labor market for workers with just a high school diploma. Labor market for workers who hold at least a college degree. The workplace becomes more computerized and technically sophisticated. When the united state initially industrialized did married women"s labor force. Production previously concentrated in household -> factory/ office. Reduced burden of housekeeping -> but didn"t advance status of women. Women continued to center activities around the home.

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