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Complete Notes for the Course (everything you need to know)

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Department
History
Course
HISTORY 2401
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Semester
Fall

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History 2401 8/26/13- Origins and Big Patterns • Origins of EastAsian Civilizations ◦ Origins of civilizations ▪ Civilization: an ambiguous term often used to denote more complex societies (but sometimes used by anthropologists to describe any group of people sharing a set of cultural traits) • Cities as administrative centers • Apolitical system based on defined territory rather than kinship • Many people engaged in specialized, non-food-producing activities • Status distinctions based largely on accumulation of wealth • Monumental building • Asystem for keeping permanent records • Long- distance trade • Sophisticated interest in science and art ▪ The earliest societies exhibiting these traits appeared in river- valley regions: the Tigris and Euphrates in Irag, the Indus in Pakistan, the HUANGHE (YELLOW RIVER) IN CHINA, and the Nile in Egypt. ◦ Geography and resources ▪ Great river systems: the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers • Two of the biggest things when becoming a civilization- think trade and travel ▪ Monsoons and the south • Had an effect on South China and the culture in Southern China andAsia because of the weather. ▪ Winds (from CentralAsia) and the North • Loess ◦ The winds from Central Asia brought this, it's a fine (loose) yellow colored dirt. It is not too hard for humans to work on with wooden sticks. ◦ This made it easier to grow things since it was easy to work with. • Floods ◦ The Loess since it is fine and loose makes the region for susceptible to floods. ◦ Deforestation also worsened the problem of the floods • Earthquakes ◦ There are many of these in Japan- “you get used to it” ◦ Some important terms ▪ StoneAge: the historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other non metallic substances. • Paleolithic: The period of stone age associated with the evolution of humans. • Neolithic: the period of ◦ Food and Tools (8000-2000 BCE Neolithic Cultures) ▪ There were some western influences from other parts of the world, but the civilization really appeared independently. They had multiple influences. ▪ Staple Crops: • Millet: indigenous I today's China • Wheat: Originally from the middle east • Rice: origin still debated- Southern China (where the monsoons are) ▪ Pottery: • Japan: Soon after 10,000 BCE (Jomon period, to 300 BCE) • China and Korea: by 6000 BCE (Korea: Jeulmun period, 8000 BCE- 700 BCE) ▪ Fish and animals • Shellfish, snails, turtles, deer, wild boar, dogs • Sheep, cattle, pigs ◦ Multiple Origins ▪ North- South ▪ East-West • Yangshao culture (west- today's western China): painted, patterned pottery • East: Dawenkou (5000- 2500 BCE, Shandong); Hongshan- know for the Jade culture and using Jade (3500 BCE, Liaodong near Korea) • Don't have to memorize know there was multiple origins ◦ Beginning of East Asian History- There was no China as we know it today in history ▪ 2000 BCE Bronze metallurgy (BronzeAge: 2000- 500 BCE) ▪ ? The Xia Dynasty • Legends of Yao, Shun, and Yu- floods! ◦ These are very important in EastAsian Civilizaiton ◦ Yao- During this period chinese did not have a succession system. The leaders passed on leadership to the person he felt most worthy. He was the first one. ◦ Shun- He is known to be a very respectful man. ◦ Yu- Established the first dynasty and passed on leadership to his son- beginning of the patriarchal system. Known to have manage the floods in northern china. Lead people to manage the floods. • Xia: ruling house • Xia ruins ▪ 1500- 1045 BCE the Shang Dynasty ▪ 1045- 256 BCE the Zhou Dynasty • Western Zhou (1045- 771 BCE) • Eastern Zhou (771- 256) ▪ Jeaulmun to Mumun culture ▪ Jomon to Yayoi ▪ Horse ▪ Iron ▪ Jade ▪ Rice 8/28/13- China in the BronzeAge • Quiz next Friday in discussion on philosophers- name philosopher with passage and state why you picked that philosopher. • Covers Shang Dynasty (1500 B.C.E.- 1045 B.C.E.) and Western Zhou Dynasty (1045-771 B.C.E.) ◦ Bronze age is a western term, if asked a Chinese person from that time period they would label it by dynasty alone (not group the two dynasties together).- believed it was classified by the dynasties. This is how Chinese history has been written. ◦ The dynasty changes are VERY important to the Chinese • The politics of archaeology and history: china as an example ◦ Traditional chinese histriography (center-to periphery diffusion of civilization) ▪ The Yellow River Valley of North China and the Central Plain • Craddle of Chinese civilization- this is the center ▪ Three Sovereigns- Five Emperors- Three Dynasties (Xia- Shang- Zhou) • Leadership was passed down to virtuous leaders and the dynasties were established. • Invented the dynastic cycles • Bad rulers lead to the lose of dynasties • linear narrative of history ◦ Interpretive paradigms ▪ Two- culture neolithic hypothesis (east-west divisions; Yangshao and Longshan) • There were two cultural centers in neolithic china • Yanghsao- 3000 BCE- ?known for colored pottery, millet farming lived in villages- was traditionally the “center” of civilization • Longshan Culture- 3000 BCE- 1500 BCE, known for beautiful black pottery, archaeologist found much symmetry in burial, shows a hierarchy in society. ▪ “Nuclear area” hypothesis (Longshan culture growing out of the Yangshao and then spreading east to populate the eastern seaboard) • Believed that there was a ncuelar area around the cnetral plain and that the second culture to the east grew out of the culture int eh central plain, central to periphery transition into culture. ▪ Regionalist approach and concept “interaction sphere”-- radiocarbon dates determined by labs; more archaeological evidence • Most historians are adotping this approach- believe there were different regions and different centers of culture at the time, but the interacted with each other. ◦ They learned from each other and kept changing their own cultural practices. • Interaction Spheres- China ◦ By 4000 BCE regional cultures had come into contact as a result of expansion ▪ EX: Ceramic styles (used for cooking, etc.) ▪ Was adopted in other regional centers/ cultures ◦ By 3000 BCE: various regions came be joined together in archeological terms and exhibit increasing similarities. ▪ This is when we can say that there was a Chinese civilization coming to be and becoming more of what we know today as “China” • The Shang Period- the ifrst and middle part of the bronze age ◦ The Three Dynasties: Xia- Shang- Zhou ▪ Yao-Shun-Yu • Yao passes on to Shun because he was a virtuous man and a great leader, Shun did the same with Yu. Yu broke this tradition and passed leadership to his son. ▪ Xia (one of the many states; most powerful): treated as a “dynasty” • Only one off the many small states that existed at a time. It was simply the most powerful one that created cities, armies, and established a ruling system. ▪ Eastly Xia, early Shang, and early Zhou- three of the many states distributed throughout North China's Yellow River Valley- they all co-existed in the beginning • The BronzeAge: in Chinese context clearly an index of social complexity ◦ There were many more cultures than the ones that were mentioned above. ◦ The bronze age applied to everywhere in China. ◦ Scale: elite patronage; specialization ▪ The elite and powerful would sponsor the production of these objects- the poor couldn't afford the Bronze. ▪ Laborers were all specilized. ◦ Artistic sophistication ▪ Indicates social complexity. ◦ Bronze discoveries at the last Shang captialAnyang (Henan): Whose Center? ▪ Anyang is one of the many centers of the bronze age. • The Shang Dynasty (1500-1045 BCE)ACHINESE Civilizaiton ◦ Ancestor worhsip ▪ very important to social life ◦ Ritual bronzes, burial rites, grave goods ▪ all are important in later chinese history ◦ Patrimonial nature of the politico- religious state and administration ◦ The role of bureaucracy ▪ Think of how the bronze was produced- There was a management system in place. ◦ Large- scale mobilization of labor by a central elite ▪ People used to believe the laboreres weere slaves, but there is evidence to contradict this. ◦ The use of calendar built on the sixty-day ganshi cycle (10 heavenly stems and 12 earthly branches) ▪ Continued later into history ◦ Language: logographic writing system ▪ The first time period where the Chinese has wirtten records in the form of bone inscriptions ◦ The role of divination in the running of the state and the selction of auspicious ▪ Still continued today. • Religious- Political System ◦ Shang king as military chieftains ▪ Lead people to mobilize labors but also lead armies to conquer other territories. ▪ Bronze production definitely helped this. ◦ Shang king as the highest priest ▪ Offer sacrifices to royal ancestors and the high god (Di) and natural gods ◦ Oracle- bone inscriptions and divination (200,00 fragments excavated) ▪ First written records of Chinese civilizations ▪ Many people were involved in preparing the scapulas and the shells ▪ Diviners: produce and interpret the cracks ▪ King: pronounce forecast ▪ Specialists carve a record of the entire divination into the bone ▪ Inscriber bones buried in storage pits in the temple palace area ▪ Systematic practice: routine; optimistic (ancestors) • Language ◦ Oracle- bone inscriptions (existing evidence) ▪ Cattle scapulas and turtle shells ◦ Chinese script ▪ Development pattern similar to others ▪ Shang inscriptions presenting all stages- already showed that they had a complete writing system. ▪ Shang laid foundation for the Chinese Lnaguage • See religion slide for the heirarchy for the high powers of religion ◦ They have legendary heroes from the remote past that they believed they were related to. “former lords” ◦ Women in the main line of the dynasty- dynastic ancestresses (wife, mother, etc.) ◦ Lineage is very important in early Chinese culture ◦ We can see the ancestor worships is important by looking at the tombs of the dead. ◦ Women relatives, former servants, and POWs would be buried with the king ◦ Used to show off the status and to show a connection between the dead people and the future generations ◦ Chariot burial ▪ Some used were like the ones used in battle, some were just passenger chariots. This burial does not show military power, but status. • Chinese Characters: Logographs- This is one of the two languages invented from nothing that moved down through generations to the present. ◦ Logographs: graphs that stand for words ◦ Advantages and disadvantages ▪ “Disadvantages”: complicated, not phonetic ▪ “Advantages”: continuity of meaning, grammar over time and space ◦ Significance ▪ One of the only two civilizations to have invented ex nihilo a script that has endured down to the present. ▪ The medieval and modern scripts of EastAsia all owe their origin and development, on way or another, to Chinese. • Western Zhou (1045-771 BCE): Cornerstone of Chinese History ◦ Established canons of governmental propriety, poetic expression, and an understanding of the changes int eh world ◦ Symbolic value for traditional China ▪ Dynastic change and the Mandate of Heaven ▪ Virtuous rulers and leaders: King Wen, King WU, Zhou Gong (The Duke of Zhou)- all famous for trying to over through the Shang Dynasty ▪ Classics • Classic of documents (Shang shu, ot Shu jing) • Zhou Changes (Zhou Yi) (includes classis of changes) • Classic of Poetry (Shi Jing) ◦ Political Structure ▪ King and vassals (kinship and loyalty) 8/30/13- Recitation • Book of Songs ◦ Can you see more than one way to interpret any of these songs? ▪ Poem 1- originated as a love song, the modest girl may be an ideal ruler or ideal government. Could be talking about the ideal traits of a woman in those times. ▪ Poem 159- could be taken as a seperation of lovers- but could be a plea to a young impressionable ruler to not just listen to everything his advisor says. ▪ Poem 258- drought could be literal or could be economic, political, or personal. Looks like a cycle- they are scared of the cycle they have been stuck in with the dynasties. • The great mandate/ mandate of heaven- the gift from heaven to the emperor, can be taken away. ▪ Poem 189- shows men dominating over women ◦ What do these songs tell us about the society then? ▪ Seems like nature is valued and sacred- it is what they live off from. They worship nature at the time. ▪ You can see the different classes through the selections provided. ▪ Shows preference of male to female children • Shows that men would like women to be quiet and do what they're told ▪ 189- they are made to do something- they will do the things they're made to do. • Book of Documents ◦ Based on the readings, why do you think Yao and Shun are regarded as two of the “Three Sovereigns- Five Emperors”? Why was Shun chosen as the next ruler? What qualities did they possess? ▪ They are both very humble and do not believe they are virtuous. ▪ They were both meritocratic- you get promoted based on what you've done ▪ Were very respectful- encouraged others to be respectful. • Why?- Being respectful is a feature of being humble. Could be because the the prevalent culture before the dynasty or the language itself only allowing for this politeness. Maybe they value everyone's role in society. ▪ What is the social structure? • Family hierarchy: father, mother, elder brother, younger brother, son. The younger ones follow the older ones. • They feel that the elders have more experience and more to learn from these people. This is why respect is such a big deal. • Notice the importance of family related to politics. 9/4/13- Eastern Zhou st nd • Divided into two periods: spring and autumn period (1 half) and the warring states period (2 half) ◦ 717 B.C.E.- Eastern Zhou Dynasty- moved the capital eastward, that is why it's called the eastern zhou. ▪ Lasted about 500 years ◦ There are seven major states left in the warring period- see map on slide ▪ They all demonstrated a lot of potential but, it was eventually Qin that unified China • Recap: The Western Zhou (1045-771 B.C.E.): Cornerstone of Chinese History ◦ The first dynasty with written records: Shang ▪ Laid the foundation for Chinese Civilization ▪ Very important because it established the idea of dynastic change ◦ Mandate of Heaven is already established in this time ◦ The political change from Shang to Zhou showed that virtues is the most important quality in a ruler ▪ Influenced the political history in China- even today ◦ The Zhou king ruled through performing rituals- remember he is also the religious leadership- rituals played an important role in collecting all the layers of relationships (see below) ◦ Those running the states held hereditary positions in the government- they werew all related by blood of marriage. • Zhou Feudal Structure ◦ Zhou King ▪ Vassal State Ruler- King's Relative • Ministers • High Officers • Shi- related by blood or marriage ◦ During this time they were like the samurai of later Japan- aristocratic warriors of this time. • The Eastern Zhou (771-256 B.C.E.) ◦ Establishment of a new court in a different city separates them from Western Zhou ◦ Role of king gradually changed- became more and more of a symbolic ruler ▪ The states became more and more powerful ◦ Divide between Spring andAutumn and the Warring States Periods ▪ The dividing year that marks the beginning of the warring state: there are many theories ▪ 475- Zhou got a new king- the previous died ▪ 453- vassal divided by three powerful families- not appointed, but they were very powerful within the Jin state- divided the country through civil wars.- they became legitimate rulers in this year ▪ Our textbook uses 479 B.C.E. ▪ See slide to see the different theories used to divide the two periods • All of these different dates shows us that: the old feudal system basically collapsed in this period. Competition for highest authority. • Basically, historians of later generations imposed their understanding of the past to create some of the dates- at the time Confucius was not as big of a deal at the time.- He was not widely successful at the time- this happened later. • Important Chronicles from the Period: ◦ Spring andAtumnAnnals (722-481)- documents what was going on in the high courts ◦ Zuo tradition (722-463)- more detailed than spring and autumn • From SpringAutumn to Warring States: Change and Continuity ◦ The bronze age starts in Shang and lasts through western shang- the bronze culture did not just disappear- we have ot think about transitions ◦ During this period, bronze and iron culture flourished and were both used ◦ During the Eastern Zhou period people continued to perfect the technology used in the bronze production industry- they continued to use bronze for weapons ◦ Keep using bronze in war for weapons, but in agriculture use iron more, whenever possible could add iron to the bronze weapons- just have to be well made. ◦ During this period commerce developed quickly, as well as private land ownership ◦ Dramatic population increase ▪ These are all happening in different states- remember Zhou King was just a symbol at this point. ◦ The states themselves became bigger and more powerful and fewer, they started to attack each other to conquer more territories- left with the big seven (this was before the unification of China) • Recap: The BronzeAge ◦ Most of the writings we have from western Zhou can be seen with bronze vessel inscriptions ◦ Eastern Zhou Bronze Bells- used for rituals • From SAto WS: Change and Continuity ◦ Multi-state Systems: the dominate states lead the smaller, non dominate states ▪ Made it harder for one to claim dominate, powerful status ◦ The Orphan of Zhao (SA) ▪ Youtube video- the ruler had died and several big families started to fight for power, killed all the children. One child was sneaked out by a loyal official- and he was running away to try to save the child. (this is a very famous story from Chinese History)- shows struggle from the time. ◦ What kind of virtues are valued?- trustworthiness and loyalty • Warring States Structure- see the slide to see the new disbursement of power. ◦ Shi belonged to officials category. ▪ Confucius was one of the gentlemen (shi) ▪ Should demonstrate moral integrity and intellectual ability • The Hundred Schools of Thought ◦ Confucius and TheAnalects ▪ Wanted to teach the young men how to be intellectually talented ▪ Importance of rituals, emphasized virtues ▪ Basically, rightous men are encouraged to get involved in government. ▪ Loyalty is important in this period because of the state rulers- people would kill themselves if the ruler died. ▪ Confucius developed his theories based on these things ▪ We all start from ourselves and our family, once righteous- you should go serve the leader. ▪ First teacher and most superior teacher to the leaders • Confucius's Critics ◦ Mozi- promoted universal love ▪ Confucius said- heirarchy, proper order are very important and we must start inside and then extend, mozi said no, we treat everyone the same way or else people will become very selfish and only help/ protect who they like. • Believe confucius would not address everything needed in their leaders ▪ All wars are bad ◦ QUIZ: know mozi, confucius and han fei- be able to identify passages from them. ◦ Han Fei- government cannot be ran by virtues we must have strict laws and punishments ▪ In real politics it is all about law and punishment. ▪ Really emphasizes that things should happen according to rules, we must follow certain procedures- Confucius: if your father kills someone, should you report?- Han Fei says yes- to follow the laws and rules of society. ◦ Read the sources and the book, the sources are very very important to the quiz- know how they address the problems of their time- how do them relate to confucius. 9/6/13- Recitation- Philosophers • Mozi Group ◦ How should you rule your people? How should you rule your state and be stronger? Need power and love from the public.- Remember to think of the context- fragmentation- no central authority, war- why to follow Mozi's philosophy. 9/9/13- The Qin Unification of China • Is a white horse a horse? ◦ One of the questions the philosophers at the time came up with when debating each other. ▪ Example to show what questions were being debated at the time. ◦ All schools wanted to store order ▪ Daoism wasn't very influential at the time- it became part of the ruling ideology at a later date. ▪ Mohism- fundamental goal was to make sure society was prosperous- increase population, etc. ◦ Confucianism and Mohism think law is necessary but not everything should revolve around it. ◦ Graph Key: check means it promotes, O means indifferent, X means it does not support ◦ Rituals- not used to cultivate virtues according to legalism ◦ Legalism emphasized absolute loyalty ▪ Mohism practical with loyalty ◦ Legalism- teaches people if you serve your father respectfully and loyally you will be able to serve the ruler loyally. • Confucius's Followers ◦ Without the disciples of Confucius there would not be such predominance of Confucianism in Chinese society ◦ Mencius ▪ Boat metaphor ▪ He believes human nature is fundamentally good ▪ There are five different relations- he is the first to mention this. • Husband-Wife relation: shows the distinctions between the two ◦ Xunzi ▪ You need rituals and education because nature is fundamentally bad ▪ Moral Cultivation- Biggest thing to Confucianism ▪ Teacher of Han Feizi • The Qin Unification: The First Chinese Empire ◦ First emperor reigned during 221-210 ◦ Qin unified in 221 BCE ◦ Qin stopped at his son, when it was overthrown by the people ◦ Established the first empire ◦ The first emperor had a pursuit to live forever- which ended up leading to his death ▪ He was very confident about his ruling. He wanted to control everything. ◦ The first emperor did not trust anyone- that is how his son came into control. ◦ First emperor in history because he chose the title- did not want ot be called a king ◦ Had kind of a legalistic approach ◦ At the time his country and his court were staffed with legalistic and strong minded men who wanted to unify China ◦ Unification measures • Was able to standardize everything- language, chariot wheel size ◦ History and Myths ▪ The Qin State was a Barbaric, non-Chinese State and civilization and it became increasingly savage when conquering other states. • Qin practice live burials • Argue that the fact that the first emperor when he died and he had the tericotta army men surrounding him symbolized live burials ◦ This is not true, live burials happened everywhere. This was created by Confucians to influence people. ▪ The Great Wall • Such a big project that a lot of people died during this project. ◦ Lady Menjiang Story- to describe the cruelty of the Qin rule • The Great Wall of China has been a symbol of China since it's creation • The frontier is fluid, never fixed, so sometimes the wall was in China and sometimes it was out. • Duke Wen of the Jin ◦ When his father exiled him and some other brothers he lead a life as a refugee. ◦ He first went to non-zhou people and then went to several other states. ◦ Later he came back to his state • The States of Wu and Yue ◦ Chu basically conquered them ◦ They became very powerful during eastern zhou- before that were considered barbaric. • Warring States ◦ Were trying to develop customs and clothing styles from the non-chinese people to improve their fighting ability ◦ The state of Chu was one of the origins of Chinese Civilization- always considered less civilized. Had a very romantic style- which is why the poetry later became so famous. ◦ Qin- in the North West, traditionally not seen as the most Chinese- they were very close to the non- chinse people • The Nomad Problem and The Pattern of Wall- Building in Pre-Modern China ◦ What were the walls supposed to protect? ▪ Chu built in 656 BCE to protect from Qin ▪ Wei built against the state of the Qin in 4 century BCE ▪ Yan built walls to the north ▪ Zhao built walls to the north and south • North to separate from barbarians • South because Wei was becoming very strong • Walls built by the Wei State ◦ Built with layers of dirt- the rammed earth the book talked about • “Northern Zone” ◦ Historians are now arguing that there has been a zone called the Northern Zone in China ◦ Mixed different kinds of land and cultures ◦ Geographical: Mountains, Deserts, Grassland, Soil, Forrest ▪ All the people in this area engaged in many different economic activities due to the varying geography. ◦ During the bronze age when civilizations were popping up in the northern zone people began to develop a very distinct northern material cutlure. This culture apperas to be very different from the civilization developed in the central plain. ◦ Grew their own grain, built own bronze items; th ◦ Around 8 century BCE across eurasia horse riding was spread everywhere and then including eastern zhou ▪ this allowed people to imagine their lifestyle in a different way • Helped transition to pastoral based economy ◦ Xiongnu/ the Huns- what the people were called at that time. ▪ These people were everywhere in Eurasian land • Why did the Qin build the great wall? ◦ Built to protect themselves and the new territories they have gained from the barbarian people. ◦ To protect the land they had just recently occupied from the less civilized people. ◦ Wall was not supposed to differentiate people- just protect land • Burning the books and burying alive Confucian scholars ◦ He burned books that he thought were useless, but he kept all relevant books about agriculture, medicine, and divination ▪ He ordered that a copy for all books burnt be kept in the imperial library. ◦ Historians are still debating whether Confucian scholars were buried alive • TheAugust Emperor's inscriptions ◦ Rigid standards- very legalists ◦ Has a lot of confucianism in it when talking about humaness and righteousness, loyalty, and virtue. ◦ Basically all though he has been portrayed as anti-confucianism he actual used a lot of it. 9/11/13- The Han Empire (220 BCE- 220AD) • At this time they were facing the issue of creating the best system to attend to all issues. • Confucianism dominated in the pattern the Han Empire set for the rest of China's future • The Chinese internally is a matter of how their confucianism world battled changes (economic, political, relational) • The Chinese externally- how to approach people that were not like them.- how to maintain relations with the barbarians in the north west. • Conflicts arouse often times because the Chinese did not want to conduct trade and commerce with the barbarian people. ◦ We don't want to deal with you, we don't want you to have our goods. • The Chinese changed their attitudes against the nomadic people and lead to the collapse of the Chinese dynasty- eventually throughout history. • The Han Dynasty (206BC-AD220) Esstablishing an imperial dynastic pattern ◦ Three Periods: ▪ Western Han (-AD 9) ▪ Wang Mang/ Xin Dynasty (9-24) • Was a relative of the emperors and wanted to use the classics to return China to the golden age. • He stopped the Han Dynasty and established his own dynasty. • Tried to apply his wisdom from the past regionally and just failed • Created chaos at the time- had good intentions- just not pratical. ▪ Eastern Han (25-220) • Repeated Zhou Dynasty pattern ◦ Famous emperors, different approaches to government ▪ Set up a system and was followed through today, the County System • Emperor is supported by his officials, came to power because of their capabilities, many rose from the commoner background ◦ Made it a centralized bureaucratic power ▪ Started sending out officials to collect taxes ▪ Brought back a little bit of the feudal system by giving his sons areas to rule. ▪ Created something similar to a fiefdom, but it was less powerful- they still wanted to give their relatives something. ▪ The early emperors of the Han dynasty promoted Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism together • Daoism- real power is the way of nature ◦ This helped China because the powerful people did not take an aggressive action (war, etc.) and lead to the people knew how to manage themselves, the people enjoyed it, this worked. ▪ Not everything was left to the people ◦ China become very powerful and very rich- people lived very peaceful lives ▪ Emperor Wu (r. 140-87 BC) • Many of the measure he took shaped ruling for China • Han Confucianism ◦ At this point confucianism went through a transformation, became systematic in a different ways ◦ Heaven, Earth and the Humans are connected in the cosmos by moral forces- by nature this is a moral world. ▪ The emperor is in the center- he connects heaven to earth and the humans ◦ Emphasized moral cultivation ◦ During the Han Dynasty the Confucian System as we know it today matured as a moral political system. ◦ During this period the theory of dynasty cycle is completed ◦ Emphasized the three principles: ruler- minister, father-son, husband-wife- Han believe these three are the most important ones ▪ Put more emphasis on hierarchy relationship ◦ Men: This new emphasis in political and moral cultivation- now the government will now recruit good sons- they will become famous for being very virtuous men. The real reward for moral cultivation for men- you get a government position. ◦ Women: No matter how virtuous, could not be an official. Han Dynasty marked many changes for women in China- their moral issues began to be noticed and taken into account. ▪ Most famous work- Biographies of Exemplary Women ◦ The quote shows what the ideal woman is like- proper, modest, quiet, conforming to gender boundaries created by the norms. ◦ Ban Zhao tells you that women were still encouraged to learn and excel in education- she promoted women's education. ◦ It's religious and very practical, deals with cosmology, talks about specific organization of the government. Includes and organized different aspects of life in a coherent why- thats why it lasted for such a long time. ▪ This confucian system was followed for over 2,000 years. • Dynastic Cycle- Mid Term ◦ We have seen these through Shang, Zhou, Qin, and now in the Han ◦ The dynastic cycle is similar to a human beings life ▪ birth, grow, mature, die • Adynasty is just like this. ◦ When a dynasty is founded everyone is energized and devoted to creating benevolent government and everyone leads a productive and peaceful life. ▪ This would lead to the golden age of the dynasty ◦ Then there is a decline where corruption happens and rebellion. You will get a since for heaven in natural disasters then the nomadic people will come in and take over. ◦ Only the moral forces can slow the process of decline, and even stop the quick slip into collapse for some time. ◦ The Confucian scholar's role has been emphasized by this theory. ◦ How do you explain the brief stop in the Han Empire? ▪ It's the same ruling house continuing the same dynasty, there was a period of crisis. Human power brought back the dynasty on the right track. ◦ Restoration- crisis being stopped and order being restored. ▪ Retrospective interpretation ◦ The Han Dynasty basically was living evidence of how the cycle works- in this dynasty this concept was very important ◦ Key Part of Cycle: Mandate of Heaven ▪ If the dynasty is restored from human power the dynasty will continue to carry out the Mandate of Heaven • Remember what the theory is about, and restoration, know mandate of heaven, apply it to Han and how they are a good example. • Wu Family Shrines: loyalty, filial piety, and womanly virtues ◦ Five Relations: describes the five relations in Confucianism ▪ Uses hierarchical structure in the art to show the power in the relationship between the ruler and the subject. ▪ The whole shrine is now showing to us the moral stories people were telling at the time. ◦ These are the three most important virtues shown throughout Chinese History- loyalty, filial piety, and womanly virtues • Funerary Model of a Pavilion- became a model after Buddhism • Han Silk ◦ The Chinese developed the silk industry, and it prospered ◦ Things found on the silk road can see nomadic, Chinese symbols ◦ The Chinese and Indian silk were products of the highest qualities. ▪ Used Chinese characters to differentiate • Military Watchtower- rich people used to protect their land- malaysian people • Equestrian Figure- using the figure to show his status • Han GarrisonsAlong the Silk Road to protect trade routes ◦ The Han Dynasty decided they needed to send the army to protect the trade route- when the general was sent to the frontier and died there ◦ the heavenly horse was considered stronger, more beautiful than the weak Chinese Breeds. • The Silk Roads in the ancient world systems ◦ In this period when the Han Dynasty came to power the world system really started to take off. ◦ Silk road can be seen with the dotted lines • The Silk Road (s) ◦ The term was invented in 1877, like civilization and bronze age ◦ Often referred to the roads as north or south of the Taklamakan Desert ◦ Many paths- that is why we use the term Silk Roads (plural) • Stories of the Silk Road ◦ Silk products were emphasized in Greek text in the 1 century ◦ Roman scholar complained we spent so much money importing from China to expose our women- it's weakening our civilization ◦ During the first period of the Silk Road- Rome was not a destination, the products just got there. 9/13/13- Recitation- The Biography of The Chief Minister of Qin • Would you or wouldn't you hire Li Si? ◦ Would: ▪ Different perspective ▪ Helped create profitable policies ▪ Very intelligence ▪ “Not afraid to get his hands dirty”- asks people to do things for him, if they don't he will cut their hands off ▪ Wouldn't pose a threat as a whole ◦ Wouldn't ▪ Doesn't need something that will do the dirty work because it could look bad ▪ Competency and ambition poses a threat to the authority itself • Seems cunning and power hungry • Might not overthrow just because he manipulates you in to seeing his way • Wants to control you- just doesn't want to be in power ◦ Qualities: ▪ Ambition and motivation ▪ Ruthless ▪ Practical- he kind of evolves as he goes through his chief minister role, willing to change to better himself ▪ Intelligent and effective ▪ Opportunistic ◦ Approached the king of Qin, saw that it was the strongest- and made a plan to unify China. • Portrayal of First Emperor of Qin: ◦ Open- minded ◦ Easily Manipulated by Li Si • What does the document tell us about the Qin dynasty itself? ◦ Following Confucianism- the king was listening to the people's ideas ◦ Social Mobility increases • What happened to the thinking and thoughts that were coming out? ◦ Philosophy was flourishing- trying to come up with helpful ideas in the time of war • People could move around safely- they could trade safely ◦ There was a lot of economic prosperity going on still. • Who was Sema? ◦ Important Chinese historian- he emphasizes the importance of listening to other people- if you do not, you cannot better your country ◦ Took castration to finish history book that were started by his father. ▪ Saw it as an act of loyalty to his father to finish the historical text ◦ His life was about confucianism- he really wanted to implement the ideas into his life • Why did sema focus on this certain qualities? ◦ You shouldn't be overly ambitious ◦ Wanted to show some of the flaws of the system ▪ Indirectly criticizes the emperor ◦ Cautionary tale- what happens when you don't follow confucianism • Who was Li Si's political enemy? ◦ Gao- Eunuch ▪ tried to bring him to execution. ▪ Came up with the idea to replace to rightful heir- persuaded the concubine's son, convinced Li Si ◦ Moral story about Eunuchs ▪ Eunuchs are kind of taken over the palace- political struggle going on between the officials and the Eunuchs • Was writing to comment on this 9/16/13- The Han Empire, Han Confucianism, Silk Road, Buddhism • The Silk Roads in the ancient world system ◦ The concept of the silk road seems to be misleading- it was not just one system by one country, people started them themselves then the states got involved for their own interests ▪ Han Dynasty- when they realized the silk road was a good thing they started to set up multiple garrisons? In their territory ◦ There are more paths then what are showed on the map on the slide • The Silk Road(s) ◦ This is a modern concept created in the 19 century to reconstruct the past ◦ China played a significant role in the history of the silk road ◦ When the Chinese dynasties fell, the silk roads declined. ◦ Golden age of the silk road- 2 period • Stories in the Silk Road History ◦ In the Qina nd Han dynasties the main problem in the northern region was the Xiongnu Problem- they didn't want to deal with the barbarians ◦ The different emperors in different dynasties switching between positions with the barbarians added to the building of the great wall ◦ Zhang Qian- sent to negotiate with nomadic states other than Xiongnu to help protect the silk road ◦ Marriage Diplomacy- the nomadic state wanted to established diplomatic agreement with the Han Dynasty ▪ Lady Zhaojun to Xiongnu- the emperor asked the painter to paint the women in the palace- the emperor picked Lady Zhaojun and she was sent to Xiongnu after their request • They have helped the Chinese tell the stories about the nomadic people • The Xiongnu as depicted by the Grand Historian ◦ Shows a standard understanding of the barbarians from the Chinese people's mind • Su-Li's Sad Farewell ◦ Su Wu- captured and the Han Emperor decided to kill off his family when he was captured • Han- WusunAlliance to protect commercial routes ◦ Successful example of marriage diplomacy • This is the first period of the Silk Road • Introduction of Buddhism into the Han Dynasty ◦ Silk road was the beginning of the spread of Buddhism ◦ If you look at the map, the Buddhism routes are very similar to the silk road routes • Reading Questions: ◦ What caused the long period of disunity? ▪ The wars and corruption within governments • Weak central governments • Influenced from the northern nomads • Powerful big families fighting for dominance ◦ Which philosophies and religions became popular among the elite in this period and why? ▪ Buddhism and Daoism because they started to not believe in Confucianism as much because of the wars going on. • Confucianism was not as dominant or popular with people at this time ◦ What ways did Buddhism contribute to Chinese culture? ▪ Gave people hope- through the suffering, supported them to go on ▪ Became a very important religion from the war ▪ Opening trade and learning about new cultures ▪ Inspired many impressive building, sculptures,etc • Art andArchitecture • Political Division ◦ Remember the pattern from this slide ◦ Towards the end of disunity the north had biased policies towards the Chinese population. • Unification: History, Myth and Ideal ◦ Unification was an ideal- they wanted the country ot be unified even though the were not most of the time • Instability and Fluidity ◦ After Han Collapsed- see three kingdoms divided by the red, yellow, and blue lines on the map • Spread of Buddhism in China ◦ Karma- every act produces a result ◦ Life is always complex with physical and mental elements ◦ Buddhism tow main schools- Theravada and Mahayana ▪ Mahayana was very attractive during this period- people were looking for peace, salvation, and hope.- they have the potential to become enlightened ◦ Buddhism did not arrive during the Zhou dynasty- even though some have said it did. • Rise in the interests in religion: confucianism, daoism, and buddhism ◦ The study of the mysterious- daoism ◦ Immortality cult- diet, sexual activities, briefing methods, alchemy, medicine, many things ▪ Eventually you will have to face death ◦ Neo-Daoism developed during a period of disunity and is different from regular Daosim 9/18/13 • Instability and Fluidity ◦ Mulan- in the disunity period of China ◦ Story is from the north, in the three kingdom period in the Northern Wei DynastyArea. ◦ Mulan was from one of the kingdoms that was not ran by a Chinese ruler ◦ Story shows that fiality was important with non- Chinese rulers as well ◦ second version- emphasized loyalty ◦ Mulan's story was used to tech young men about loyalty • Buddhist Influences ◦ In the north and the south Buddhism developed differently and also shaped the experience of the elite in different ways ▪ Many educated, Confucius Chinese men took up Buddhism ◦ Monks became very culture men who established good connections with the Confucian elite ◦ The non-Chinese state was interested in Buddhism to be appealing to other states, wanted to use to control the whole territory ◦ Started to serve in the northern courts and as military advisers ◦ Flourished in cities and elites because cities were where there were many foreigners and many Buddhist texts were translated. ▪ Largely an urban, elite phenomenon at the time ◦ Buddhism was transformed in the south to be a gentritized faith ◦ Buddhism was introduced in China, mainly developed in disunity and followed different development in north and south • Dunhuang Caves ◦ Contains many Buddhist art forms • Longman Caves (Northern) ◦ The states promoted Buddhism, and this is one of the important Buddhist sites in this area • Qingzhou BuddhistArt ◦ Yan Zhi-tui is from this area, family fled due to war • Rise in the interests in religion: Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism ◦ Metaphysical discussion removed from regular politics ◦ If we can't continue out Confucianism during the war we will withdraw. ◦ Immortality cult ◦ Buddhism when introduced into China- They needed something to help them take root ▪ Daoism had stronger appeal than Buddhism, so Buddhism used Daoism to take root in China ◦ Daoism translated Buddhist texts- did not translate things on Karma, etc. chose to translate information on diet, sexual health, etc. ◦ Buddhism and Daoism used each other to become stronger ◦ Period described as a really bad time for Confucianism by historians. ▪ Buddhism was adopted as the state's religion ◦ Confucianism still shaped government and everyday life, although most were more interested in Buddhism due to salvation, etc. ◦ The meaning of merit changed in this period, but rather to make sure they were the image of self-cultivated men. ▪ If he can talk about Buddhism and Metaphysics- he can serve in the government ◦ All the states continued to use Confucian texts in education ◦ Filial Piety- the states encouraged father and son to live in the same family, in household ◦ Tax policy- during this period, in some states, tax was collected based on household- the whole household was one unit ▪ Reason for large families? • Creates conflict- property dispute and other domestic disputes while trying to survive and prosper. ◦ During this period elite men were completely transformed with disunity • Miraculous Filial Stories ◦ Kowtow- the deepest vow one can do, kneel and hit your head on the floor three times ◦ Shows that people really promoted Confucian practices for their own reasons • Sui and Tang Dynasty • The Sui Dynasty (581-618) ◦ unified the north and the south • The Tang Dynasty (618-907) ◦ During the Sui and Tang Dynasty they modeled themselves after Emperor Wu from the Han Dynasty ◦ One of the Chinese family emperor in early modern period- all the future emperors of this dynasty cannot invade Vietnam or Korea- once you do that your dynasty is doomed ◦ They all have different approaches to the expansion • Cosmopolitan Empire of Sui and Tang ◦ Were the ruling class (Chinese)? (pg. 76-78) ◦ They were descendents of military families inter marriage, had Chinese and non-Chinese ancestors ◦ The rulers themselves wanted to portray themselves as the benevolent ruler or emperor, wanted to be the Buddhist king, a universal monarch. ◦ Many of the powerful military governors were not 100% Chinese- but there was always Chinese somewhere in the background ▪ Build allies with non-Chinese as well • The only female emperor in Chinese History: Wu Zhao (Empress Wu)- What Made it Possible? ◦ This did not hold in all ofAsia, Korea and Japan had multiple empresses ◦ The multiple backgrounds was not a big deal- it was and advantage- helped make connections ◦ Second period of the silk road's trade- the Tang Dynasty really promoted commerce and trade, there were many rich merchants appearing during this time ◦ Tang dynasty- know for a society with less gender hierarchy ◦ There were many “western” (central Asia) cultural influences ◦ The ruling house of the Tang Dynasty had the surname of Li ◦ Confucianism came back and established itself as ethical and social ◦ Portrayed herself has a virtuous wife and a caring mother, and use filial piety to rally support from the public ◦ Helped form the civil service examinations- men would be tested on Confucian classics, were required to write poetry ▪ Literary talents were really cherished during this period ◦ Confucians used very patriarchal ideas to try to keep her from power- used the examinations to encourage the middle and lower class to come into the positions ◦ The exam pulled many Chinese men from different backgrounds • Tang Women ◦ Less Gender Hierarchy is Tang Dynasty ◦ Were very interested in fashion- centralAsian products for make-up and clothes ▪ they really liked exploring foreign styles- was trendy in this period ▪ Some wore men's clothes ◦ Many of these women could ride horses, and engage in other outdoor activities ◦ Bold and jealous women stories from this period ◦ Women could freely pursue divorce in this period ◦ Empress Wu did not think it was odd to be an Empress because the stories of the Japenese and Korean empresses and queens had been passed to China 9/20/13- Recitation • Mulan- is going to be very important on the mid-term ◦ Individual vs. Collective ▪ Second one talks more about her relationships and her whole family- bigger picture than herself in the second one. ▪ Emotions are different- second shows more sadness, the first one maybe they were more ready- there were more wars in the first one ▪ First- she takes the initiative to “take back her role” in the second it looks at her return kind of in her parent's eyes ▪ Differences in parental expectations: • First:emphasizes confucianism- does this for her father because of confucianism • Second: acting out of place in society, gender roles- sees that her parents are sad when she returns ▪ First poem: appears more like a heroin, people respect people like her; second poem: not as much a hero, emphasize loyalty to family and country ▪ The people she is fighting against in the two are different, nomads in first, tibetans in the second- maybe to make seem more recent and easier to sympathize with. • Why did they emphasize a different enemy? ◦ International trade was at a high, this rulers were not all completely ethnically Chinese ◦ Focus on another common enemy- the nomads are not an enemy- think of the rulers and trade being open. ▪ Second: army friends are too overwhelmed and too shocked to approach her- look at the filiality, loyalty that the author is emphasizes ▪ Second: she did it out of piety, but women probably shouldn't do this ▪ First: who can tell the difference- hare example ▪ Think about the similarities between the poems • EX: Confucianism is heavily emphasized in the second, look at Confucianism in the first one- still shows piety 9/23/13- Early Korea • Chinese Civilization- What are it's Characteristics? ◦ Chinese in ancient times began to define gender roles ◦ Confucianism, legalism ◦ Mulan- the family structure, loyalty ◦ Chinese language has been used by people who lived in the land/ moved to the land • Neolithic Period in East Asia ◦ By 7,000 BCE there were already many people living in the Korean peninsula ◦ They were creating tools and settling ◦ One of the important things that allows us to see important period in the history is pottery, bronze, and iron ◦ Raised design is very Korean in pottery o f that time • Perspectives: “Northern Zone” ◦ During the Bronze age, gradually a distinct northern material culture took shape, gradually became different from the central/ Chinese plain ◦ Bronze was introduced from Siberia and China through Manchuria ▪ Later than china, lasted about 600 years • Northern Zone ◦ Xiajiadian- culture that was similar to Korean civilization's beginning • Origin-I: The Tan' Gun Myth ◦ The early sources we have of Korea are from the Medieval Period ◦ Mountain spirits are a very important symbol in Korea- close to Heaven for human beings • Origin-II- Gija (Chinese: Jizi/ Qizi) ◦ Chinese history has always been a part of the stories of early Korean civilization ◦ Jizi- virtous, great thinker, positive ruler in historical records ◦ Sacred Nature in Korea and they are proud of it, this connection between early Chinese and Korea is a nice thing- it kind of just happened. • Recap: The Han Dynasty/ Establishing an imperial dynastic pattern ◦ Territories markings were questionable- established 4 camaraderies in Korea ◦ When confucianism flourished in China it was introduced to Korea • The Four Han Commanderies ◦ Just remember they were in the northern part of Korea- established the differences between northern and southern korea • The Three Kingdoms (313-668) ◦ China had a part in shaping the three state period in Korea • State Formation in NortheastAsia: Manchuria and the Korean Peninsula ◦ Korean state formation is considered an example of secondary state formation ◦ Remember in this period there were no states or national boundaries- people, cultures, thoughts moved freely through Eurasia. ▪ In a sense, the area was a big melting pot ◦ All the states in the Korean peninsula were introducing things from China (including Chinese calligraphy) ◦ Three influential religions: Shamanism, Confucianism, Buddhism ◦ Took longer for the Silla to introduce Chinese culture, but picked it up really quickly and eventually became the most powerful state. • Knife Coinage of the state of Yan (eastern zhou) ◦ Started to learn about iron procution 9/25/13- Confucianism, Buddhism and State formation in Early Korea • Friday- Quiz book page 109- the biography- know the two questions on the page, and the other one will be made up- will be in the lecture and/ or textbook • The Three Kingdoms (313-668) ◦ before unification by silla the land was dominated by the three kingdoms • Three Kingdoms: Relationship with Chinese Dynasties ◦ Goguryeo- it's colder, the climate is harsher, as well as the landscape. Since it is so close to China and other Chinese groups it is constantly facing threats from Chinese empire, and threats from other groups. Had to find a way to get one group on their side to fight the other. ◦ Parkche- enjoyed peaceful implication of Chinese culture, developed it's own economy. Well positioned for peaceful contacts with China and Japan. ▪ Most strongly influenced by Buddhism before unification of the peninsula. ◦ Silla- Was the weakest and smallest ot begin with, then expanded and unified the peninsula. Chinese influence took longer to take root in Silla, but when it did Silla took off and built a strong army and effective bureaucratic system. • Confucian Practices ◦ Confucian scholarship reflects the early adoption of Confucianism by Goguryeo and Baekje. ◦ Goguryeo was always the most influenced by Chinese institutions th ◦ Silla adopted the Chinese Confucianism, etc. in 6 century but adopted all of it at that time ▪ National academy taught Chinese classics ◦ Must have benefited from the tributary system- China was sending people with gifts to establish diplomatic relationships with them. ◦ After Silla united the whole peninsula it perfected it's administrative system and imported the examination system. ▪ Remember: even though they imported the civil service exam, it was not used the same way as in China ◦ Both systems were introduced as something foreign- so the Koreans could decide what worked for them and what didn't work for them. (Confucianism and Buddhism). • Distinctively Korean ◦ Developed their own culture by taking things from other cultures surrounding them. ◦ Almost half of the archaeological sites today are in the Korean peninsula. ◦ Dolmen- table type more common. ◦ The other thing that is very different from the Chinese is the bone rank system. ▪ Sacred bone- part of the family ▪ True bone- aristocrats- occupied the highest positions in the government • Not all of them were allowed to advance into other positions ▪ Head rank-six different classes. ◦ Civil service was really just to open positions to the aristocrats, not everyone ◦ Flower Youth Groups- they were the true bone aristocrat young warriors, they would bound together to do military exercise, would study together, eat, drink- this never happened in China. Had a very fun and charismatic sense. Promoted ethical values. • Dong Shou's (kor. Tongshu, d. 357) tomb, near p'yongyang ◦ Basically he fled when China was in war- was a military leader in a northern state, and wanted their family to have a more peaceful life- went to Gokuryeo and found new jobs. ◦ Rose to high positions in Korea before he died- great example of Chinese influence on burial styles in Korea. ◦ Long horn was from centralAsia th • Silla Royal Tombs: Desire for gold ornaments (5th-6 century) ◦ Archaeologists found these beautiful objects in these tombs ◦ All gold, but in terms of style- conversion of siberia, central asia, china ◦ Earrings- we just for burial purpose for decoration, some of the other objects are just for show as well • Hwangnam no. 98 north and south (husband and wife tomb) (silla) ◦ Found glass from rome in one of the burial sites- they think they are most likely from rome. ◦ Shows how much Korea has really integrated into their culture • King Hungdok's edict on clothing, carts, and housing (CE 834) vs. Sol Kyedu ◦ Wants people to follow the strict rules and observe this very strict hierarchical order- do not try to transgress the prohibitions ▪ First passage ◦ Mad he couldn't advance to higher positions because of his rank ▪ Second passage • Introduction of Buddhism ◦ Confucianism was spread in the same order as Buddhism, because Buddhism was introduced through China, as well as Confucianism. ◦ Goguryeo- When introduced into the Korean peninsula China was in disunity again, and Buddhism became exported. The king of the Qin sent a monk to Korea. ▪ Tributary event ▪ Buddhism played an important role in diplomatic relations in eastAsia ◦ Baekje-Amonk from Jin arrived after the King of Baekje sent an envoy to the Jin dynasty- was not just a religious event, was a political and diplomatic event. ◦ Silla-Ado- didn't go to court when he arrived- stayed with a local resident. ▪ When the king's daughter felt sick he helped cure the king's daughter by burning incense and praying. ◦ Introduction of Buddhims in Silla compared to Goguryeo and Baekje ▪ Started more slowly?- since he didn't go directly to the court- he went to the community. ▪ There was resistance to it- the king obviously didn't see a reason to introduce Buddhism to his court. ◦ Why did people promote Buddhism in Korean peninsula? ▪ Ruler/ Elite- political diplomatic values in relations with China. Gave them nice symbols to advance their authority- attract aristocrats. • The Role of Korea in EastAsian Buddhism ◦ When Korean monks went to other places they did their Buddhist readings and studied Buddhism there to bring back the scriptures to Korea. ▪ India and China to study with prominent Monks.Also actually taught in some places in China ◦ Baekje had a good relationship with Japan- was trying to build relationship to have an ally against Silla and Goguryeo. ◦ The Korean Monks made a contribution to disseminated Buddhism in China- two way traffic, not just one way coming from China ◦ They were influenced but were smart at choosing different religion systems and making it work for them. th • 8 century, 5.5 m high pagoda, hwa'om-sa ◦ Style was Chinese- developed in the Han dynasty ◦ Introduced into Korea and then to Japan • Bronze figure slide ◦ Very korean- has a very relaxed buddhist style • Buddhism at the end of this period: different characteristics and fates ◦ Silla conquered Goguryeo and then Baekje ▪ Their Buddhism didn't die, only the states died. ▪ Many Buddhist masters went to Silla and Japan • Wanted to have a relationship with the Tang dynasty in China ◦ Promotion of Daosim in Goguryeo lead to them losing many of their buddhist masters. ◦ Silla- it's here you being to see the secularization of Buddhism ▪ After the kingdom unified the peninsula the rulers begin to feel like they need to emphasize more than just Buddhism. ▪ Gangsu- an official who promoted confucianism, but buddihism was very influential at this time, so Gangsu thought confucianism was better than buddhism because of his education in Chinese caligraphy, etc. 9/27/13- Recitation • Describe Gangsu's attitudes towards Buddhism and Confucianism ◦ Believed Buddhism was not applicable to the current world. Silla used Confucianism in government- that is why he found it more practical and useful. ◦ Confucianism is in the social structure Buddhism is used for spirituality ◦ How is Buddhism not concerned with this world? ▪ Since the tests to place him in a government position were based on Confucianism. • Test was only given to aristocrats ▪ Gangsu was a lower born aristocrat • Why did he think this was the path to move up in society? ◦ Confucianism- for the government structure they were trying to copy the Chinese ◦ Wanted to read and write to have a better chance of having a better connection with China and their culture- going into government and creating relationships with the government in China ◦ If he wanted to be valuable to the king he had to be very well versed in Confucianism • Hwarang- before unified Silla • Widow source- before unified Silla • Samguk Sagi- book that was completed in 1145; one of the oldest records we have about Korean history ◦ Why did the king ask the historian to do this? ▪ Wanted a sense of uniform ▪ It was important for Korea to have a source of history that was their own, written by them. ▪ Was trying to model him self after sema qin ◦ What about Confucianism attracts kings? ▪ He is at the top- people are loyal, filial piety ▪ Unite a kingdom by telling people they have to follow Confucian values and be loyal to him. • The Hwarang- historians say it is pretty accurate for its time for Korean information • Look at the source- who wrote it, why did they write it? ---> look at this in the future • What does The Hwarang and the Widow source tell us about ancient Korean society? ◦ The warriors were from the aristocrat class. • Gender at the time ◦ Widow- got to pick which brother she wanted to marry, sort of chose the successing leader when husband died ◦ Women kind of went behind others' backs to get things done- negative view ▪ Maybe when they were writing it they cast a negative life on women ◦ An object?- pag. 101 of Hwarang talking about the 300 men gathering around to watch the two women to compete ◦ Different classes of women had a different amount of control and power 10/2/13 • Mid- Term: Will get a study guide on Monday October 7, 2013; on Wednesday we are reviewing; Friday is the mid-term • Confucianism and Buddhism in Early Japan ◦ Confucianism and Buddhism introduced to Japan ▪ Once a dynasty falls and the next is established the new dynasty will write the history on the old dynasty ▪ The Chinese started to document and compile history in early times- including history on Japan ▪ “Burning bones...”- think about how this connects back to the Chinese oracle bones ▪ Himiko- Queen but didn't appear in Japanese records or official history- only Chinese official histories show records of her. • Maybe she is another empress but has a different name in the Chinese histories • Following the ways of the gods- Shinto religion ▪ The EastAsian context for the changes in the belief system • China: China was re-unified, very cosmopolitan style of government, became very strong and developed diplomatic relationships with many other parts ofAsia • Korea: Influenced by Buddhism and Chinese culture. Silla strengthens it's rule and builds power with help of Tang an unifies Korea. ▪ What was happening between Yamato Japan and the Korean peninsula? • Baejke was being threatened by gogyreo and silla, joins with japan to gain help in making a stand in the Korean peninsula. • Established strong political diplomatic relations. ▪ What was happening between Yamato Japan and Sui-Tang China? • Japan saw China rising as a powerful country, they wanted to establish a much stronger tie to the China and gain stronger rule over Japan. ◦ Envoys to Sui-Tang China ▪ Context in which the exchange between emperors happened ▪ Although the Sui dynasty was short lived, the Japanese sent 4 envoys to the Sui dynasty ▪ When the Tang dynasty was established, the Japanese court had an official title for the missions, “Envoys to Tang China” • 15 total envoys ◦ There were also failed attempts ▪ During the first 35 years- traveled along Korean coast, they were in good terms- they could stop there to get more supplies if needed. Could also be the ship technology of the time. ▪ Next 50 years- going out of their way to avoid the silla united korea? Or they could have been establishing more connections with the islands in the south. ▪ Last third- independence and familiarity can be seen with the chosen route. ▪ The last envoy was sent to China in 838, by this time Tang China was already showing signs of decline with wars, etc.- made it less reliable for the Japanese to travel to China. Plus, they had already gotten a lot of what they needed from China. • “Learned everything they wanted to learn from China” ▪ These envoys carried on the diplomatic trade and scholarly missions, collected all the books they could find. That's why historians of China who study the pre-mideval period they could find all these very rare books in Japan that were produced in China because the Japanese preserved them very well. ▪ There were also many religious scholars- fit description of monks but were not monks • These scholars during the last part of the exchange between China and Japan- they went and studied with China monks and established important sects in Japan. ◦ 2 important sects: Tendai Sect and Shingnon Sect • Ennin- was chosen to lead the Tendai Sect. ▪ When these people traveled to China they had their living expenses paid for- especially generous to the monks. th ◦ Sinicization/ Sinification (6-8 century) -MIDTERM ▪ Basically, how the Japanese learn from Chinese and adapt the Chinese system. ▪ The 17 injunctions laid out the political policy of the country ▪ From the time of pince shotoku they continued this sinification processes • Conscript army system- warrior system replaced it. Tried Chinese system before this • Started writing official histories. • Developed own original Japanese system of writing ◦ Confucianism in the 17 injunctions ▪ 1: Ritualistic, loyalty- confucian traits of the passage ▪ 2: giving power to those with merit, specific jobs and positions for the people to keep order in government, mandate of heaven- moral terms in rulership and government- confucian traits of the passage ▪ 3: hierarchy (chasity was starting to develop- was later reserved for women), worried about imposing too heavy of a burden on people - confucian traits of the passage ◦ The birth of syllabaries ▪ Used the Chinese system but intgegrated into their own language system ◦ Introduction of Buddhism ▪ Shows the questions for discussion on Friday ▪ Remember: EastAsia followed Mahayana Buddhism ◦ Buddhism and Prince Shotoku's 17 Injunctions ▪ 10- show why buddhism took shape so easily in Japan ▪ Influenced bu Buddhism and Confucianism by the same time- took it and integrated how they wanted to. ◦ Empress Suiko and Prince Shotoku (Soga lineage) ◦ Buddhism in Early Japan ▪ summary- look at the slides before discussion. 10/4/13- Recitation (Ennin's Diary) • Recap: Buddhism • Ennin's Diary: ◦ Japanese religious expedition to China and his diary of going to China (Buddhist Monks) also military people to guard them. Political representatives were with them as well (ambassadors). • Nihon Shiko: ◦ Burning things- introduction of Buddhism to Japan ◦ Shows how Japan learned to balance the Shinto and the Buddhist religions ▪ Shows how they some how compete and some times go together ◦ The king would delegate who will worship Buddhism and who will follow Shinto, after he was able to see what happened after they were worshiping Buddhism he would take it on himself. ◦ There was a very big reaction against Buddhism at this time. ◦ Title of Korean Ruler according to this Japanese source: King, King of Baejke- the Japanese make it seem as though this one kingdom is all of Korea ◦ Title of Japanese Ruler: Emperor ◦ Relation between King and Emperor: Emperor is more powerful than king • Group questions: ◦ How did the Japanese view the Chinese and vice versa? ▪ Japanese viewed Chinese with reverence- they were the most powerful nation at the time Viewed them as a place they could learn from China but at the same time there are things that make them feel like it is an awful place. ▪ Chinese viewed the Japanese as not really worth their time. ◦ How did the Japanese view the Koreans and vica versa? ▪ The Japanese viewed the Koreans as inferior, not necessarily in a bad way- just thought because they were weaker they should play the Japanese tribute. • Looked to Korea as the example. Invited Korean monks to teach them Buddhism ▪ More of a respectful relationship- respect Koreans because of their knowledge of Buddhism ◦ How did japenese people, officials, emperors debate about adopting and abandoning buddhism? ▪ Didnt want to adopt because they didn't want the religion to become too powerful and be more powerful than the emperors. • Started to put a hierarchy in shape to watch the monks and nuns ▪ Did want to adopt because of diplomatic relations with China and Korea, used during epidemics, if it worked they would continue to use it. ◦ Examples of rulers using Buddhism for ruling ▪ If you follow Buddhism it will end calamities ▪ Used to gain power and resist the king's influence- Soga family- the only to accept Buddhism at first ◦ Did nuns play an important role in the disseminaiton of Buddhism? ▪ They were always with the monks in temples, they often went to Korea to learn and train more. ▪ Took care of the children ▪ The nuns were really young (11yo) • Monday: will summarize all the religions • Japanese attitudes towards resistance to Buddhism: ◦ All other countries are adopting it, we should too. ◦ Resistance argument: we worship Shinto, we should not adopt another religion or else our gods will stop protecting us. 10/7/13- International Relations in EastAsia: The Tributary System • Study Guide will be posted on Carmen Today • Qu
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