[PLNTPTH 2000] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (19 pages long!)

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PLNTPTH 2000
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Fungal Forms and Basic Growth Habit
How fungi are named, what mycology means, structure of the cell.
Fungus -O- The Day
Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom
Edible (will not kill you), but some people cannot
tolerate
It is a tree pathogen--always found around the
base of the tree.
Easy to identify (and found all over Ohio and
nationally)--flat cap, rounded, tan but yellowish-
orange as well, many animals eat them so they
may look half-eaten sometimes.
Always found on wood.
Mycelial fans.
Kills trees, forms shoestrings (Rhomorphs) that go up the tree--these degrade and
weaken the tree.
Fungi glow in the dark!! It takes a lot of energy to do this--what is the advantage of
glowing?
Possibly to deter animals, attract organisms for food.
TO BE HONEST, we have no idea why they glow. We know the chemicals that
cause the glow, but we do not know why.
It is possible that the chemical that is used to glow is used for other things and
just happens to glow.
The largest organism on Earth!
In Oregon.
Covers 1,665 football fields--it
is 3.5 miles wide.
2,400-7,200 years old.
Underground it is all
connected, like a subway
system.
But how do we know the
fungus on one side is still
connected to the other? After
all, much of it is underground, no?
Using genetics (which comes to mating type and a few other factors), it is
proven that it is one organism.
Genetically identical cells that communicate with each other and have
one common purpose.
Thoughts on video (with Paul Stamets)
I took notes on this TedTalk!
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Regarding the “zombie” fungi, it is almost certain that humans would not be consumed
by it if one were to ingest it, really only insects and small organisms are affected so
strongly.
There are many different strands that correspond to different insects/ants.
“Humans modeled the Internet after slime molds--interesting.
You can actually grow slime molds and it will solve mazes!
Researchers put a map of Tokyo in the slime mold complete with food in
certain areas. The slime mold solved the map/maze and killed off every
end that was not the most efficient route to the food!
Fungus can play different notes on the piano based on this (kinda).
Really interesting how different combinations of fungi can overcome different things and
break down organic compounds--e.g. the oil!
When there was the BP oil spill, one of the solutions was a type of fungi.
In Chernobyl, Ukraine, the only thing growing and living is a black yeast that uses
melanin to catch radiation.
It’s kind of like “punctuated evolution.”
WOO!
Fungi are some of the most important organisms on the planet!
Mycology:
(Greek) mykes = cap.
Mushroom + logos = discourse of study.
Strictly speaking, mycology is the study of mushrooms.
Currently well over 100,000 species described.
We know fungi that affect us or affect plants (because that affects our
food supply). We only describe the ones that are interesting to us.
There are certainly many more that have not been studied yet because
either they cannot be grown in labs or seem unimportant, etc..
What basic functions/things must all fungi do (must all living things do)?
Reproduce (communication is a part of this).
Most of an organism’s energy is spent reproducing--all mushrooms do is
reproduce!
Respiration/metabolize (cellular metabolism), find some way to use the
environment.
Respond to environment (including defending/protecting itself).
Bring things in (water, nutrients).
If we see a mushroom, we know a fungus is reproducing. Underground, it was
communicating, breaking down things, getting nutrients.
Fungal Lifestyles
Of the known fungi:
~.001% true human pathogens not considering superficial colonization.
If you had the flu, you might have had histoplasma. You will not die from it
unless you are immunocompromised. If you are immunocompromised,
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