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Study_Sheet for Exam 1

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Ohio State University
PSYCH 3313

Review Sheet – Psych 3313 – Exam 1 – Torello – Fall, 2013 Chapter 1 – Key Terms - Page 18 - 2 questions 1.3 & 1.4 Chapter 5 - Key Terms - Page 129 - 2 questions 5.1, 5.2 & 5.5 Nucleus: soma in CNS; A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction. Ganglion: soma in PNS; A group of nerve cells forming a nerve center, especially one located outside the brain or spinal cord. Tract: axons bunches in CNS; A bundle of nerve fibers having a common origin, termination, and function. Nerve: axons bunches in PNS; Any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the brain or other parts of the central nervous system and the eyes, glands, muscles, and other parts of the body. Nerves form a network of pathways for conducting information throughout the body. Neurons - Soma: cell body of any neuron - Dendrites: are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. - Axon: a large filament that comes out of the soma - Myelin: all axons, except those in the olfactory bulb, are covered with myelin sheaths (white fatty sheet). - Spines: where neurotransmitters bind; receptors of a neuron are in the dendritic spine - Vesicles: In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse; end of the axon is a axon vesicle where the neurotransmitters are stored - Synapse: In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell - Refractory Periods: the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following excitation in the areas of biology, physiology, and cardiology. There is a rest period inbetween firing of the neurons. Needs a lot more EPSPs to fire between 1-5millisecs. At about 5 ms the neuron is ready to go again. - Microtubules: Microtubules are filamentous intracellular structsure that are responsible for various kinds of movements in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are involved in nuceic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and intracellular transport, as well as ciliary and flagellar motility. Tiny tubes that care neurotransmitters from axon terminal and packaged into vesicles. - EPSP/IPSP: EPSP (+): exhibitory, more than an action potential is fired, voltage and IPSP (-): inhibitory TERMS Enzymatic Breakdown: neurotransmitters being broken down/ deactivated after they bind to the receptors; happening in the synapse. Bind to Receptor: when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site Reuptake: once neurotransmitters are released into the synapse are taken back up into the pre-snyaptic side where they are restored. This means the neuron doesn’t have to waste energy. Somatic (within your control/ conscious) v. Autonomic (not under your control/ unconscious) Sympathetic: The part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord that in general inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system, as in tending to reduce digestive secretions, speeding up the heart, and contracting blood vessels. Parasympathetic: the part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the brain stem and the lower part of the spinal cord that, in general, inhibits or opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system, as in tending to stimulate digestive secretions, slow the heart, constrict the pupils, and dilate blood vessels. Limbic System: Aggression, food, sex; a complex set of brain structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. The limbic system includes the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum, habenula, limbic cortex and fornix.It supports a variety of functions, including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction.[3] It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the formation of memories. 1. Frontal lobe—conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes, social differences, etc. The frontal lobes are the most uniquely human of all the brain structures. Motor behaviors 2. Parietal lobe—plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; portions of the parietal lobe are involved with visuospatial processing. Tactile processing 3. Occipital lobe—sense of sight; lesions can produce hallucinations. Visial processing 4. Temporal lobe—senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes. Auditory processing 5. Limbic lobe—emotion, memory Insular cortex—pain, some other senses. Prosopagnosia: Prosopagnosia (Greek: "prosopon" = "face", "agnosia" = "not knowing"), also called face blindness, is a disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making) remain intact. Face Cells: cells located in the right posterior temporal lobe (behind right ear) – results in prosopagnosia (inability to distinguish faces) Sensory Strip: The sensory strip is apart of the brain located in the parietal lobe, near the border of the frontal lobe. The sensory strip is involved in registering sensation that are connected specific body parts or body functions. It is the band of neurons that are embedded in your cerebrum or cerebral cortex. Parietal lobe. Motor Strip: Motor strips, which are located in the frontal lobe; what control all muscle movement including the ones that are necessary for speech. Some parts of the body are more dexterous than others (talking fast/ lots of cells) Acalculia: an acquired impairment in which patients have difficulty performing simple mathematical tasks, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and even simply stating which of two numbers is larger. Acalculia is distinguished from dyscalculia in that acalculia is acquired late in life due to neurological injury such as stroke, while dyscalculia is a specific developmental disorder first observed during the acquisition of mathematical knowledge. Left hemispheric stroke takes out the angular gyrus. Meningitis: Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that surround the brain. There are three meninges, including the following: dura mater - the outside membrane that adheres to the inside of the skull arachnoid - the middle membrane. pia mater - the innermost membrane, which adheres to the brain. Dementia Pugilistica: a neurodegenerative disease or dementia that may affect amateur or professional boxers as well as athletes in other sports who suffer concussions. The condition is caused by repeated concussive and sub- concussive blows (blows that are below the threshold of force necessary to cause concussion), or both. Brain damage to the cortex through constant bounding. General Paresis: A brain disease occurring as a late consequence of syphilis, characterized by dementia, progressive muscular weakness, and paralysis. Degenerative changes are associated primarily with the frontal and temporal lobar cortex. Like syphilis itself, general paralysis is also treated with penicillin. Dementia caused by advanced syphilis. Tabes Dorsalis: From advanced syphilis and causes you to not walk well by affecting spinal cord (feet fit together); Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration of the nerve cells and nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain. The degenerating nerves are in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (the portion closest to the back of the body) and carry information that help maintain a person's sense of position. Tabes dorsalis is the result of an untreated syphilis infection. Symptoms may not appear for some decades after the i
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