Review Sheet – Psych 3313 – Exam 1 – Torello – Fall, 2013
Chapter 1 – Key Terms - Page 18 - 2 questions
1.3 & 1.4
Chapter 5 - Key Terms - Page 129 - 2 questions
5.1, 5.2 & 5.5
Nucleus: soma in CNS; A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic
structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and
controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Ganglion: soma in PNS; A group of nerve cells forming a nerve center,
especially one located outside the brain or spinal cord.
Tract: axons bunches in CNS; A bundle of nerve fibers having a common origin,
termination, and function.
Nerve: axons bunches in PNS; Any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of
neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the
brain or other parts of the central nervous system and the eyes, glands, muscles,
and other parts of the body. Nerves form a network of pathways for conducting
information throughout the body.
- Soma: cell body of any neuron
- Dendrites: are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the
electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or
soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
- Axon: a large filament that comes out of the soma
- Myelin: all axons, except those in the olfactory bulb, are covered with myelin
sheaths (white fatty sheet).
- Spines: where neurotransmitters bind; receptors of a neuron are in the dendritic
- Vesicles: In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store
various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse; end of the axon is a
axon vesicle where the neurotransmitters are stored
- Synapse: In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron
(or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell
- Refractory Periods: the amount of time it takes for an excitable membrane to
be ready for a second stimulus once it returns to its resting state following
excitation in the areas of biology, physiology, and cardiology. There is a rest
period inbetween firing of the neurons. Needs a lot more EPSPs to fire between
1-5millisecs. At about 5 ms the neuron is ready to go again.
- Microtubules: Microtubules are filamentous intracellular structsure that are
responsible for various kinds of movements in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules
are involved in nuceic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and
intracellular transport, as well as ciliary and flagellar motility. Tiny tubes that care
neurotransmitters from axon terminal and packaged into vesicles. - EPSP/IPSP: EPSP (+): exhibitory, more than an action potential is fired, voltage
and IPSP (-): inhibitory
Enzymatic Breakdown: neurotransmitters being broken down/ deactivated after
they bind to the receptors; happening in the synapse.
Bind to Receptor: when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor site
Reuptake: once neurotransmitters are released into the synapse are taken back
up into the pre-snyaptic side where they are restored. This means the neuron
doesn’t have to waste energy.
Somatic (within your control/ conscious) v. Autonomic (not under your control/
Sympathetic: The part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the
thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord that in general inhibits or opposes
the physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system, as in tending to
reduce digestive secretions, speeding up the heart, and contracting blood
Parasympathetic: the part of the autonomic nervous system originating in the
brain stem and the lower part of the spinal cord that, in general, inhibits or
opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system, as in
tending to stimulate digestive secretions, slow the heart, constrict the pupils, and
dilate blood vessels.
Limbic System: Aggression, food, sex; a complex set of brain structures that lies
on both sides of the thalamus, right under the cerebrum. The limbic system
includes the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, septum,
habenula, limbic cortex and fornix.It supports a variety of functions, including
emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction. It appears to
be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a great deal to do with the
formation of memories.
1. Frontal lobe—conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes, social
differences, etc. The frontal lobes are the most uniquely human of all the brain
structures. Motor behaviors
2. Parietal lobe—plays important roles in integrating sensory information from
various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; portions of the parietal lobe
are involved with visuospatial processing. Tactile processing
3. Occipital lobe—sense of sight; lesions can produce hallucinations. Visial
4. Temporal lobe—senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes. Auditory processing
5. Limbic lobe—emotion, memory
Insular cortex—pain, some other senses.
Prosopagnosia: Prosopagnosia (Greek: "prosopon" = "face", "agnosia" = "not
knowing"), also called face blindness, is a disorder of face perception where the
ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing
(e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making)
Face Cells: cells located in the right posterior temporal lobe (behind right ear) –
results in prosopagnosia (inability to distinguish faces)
Sensory Strip: The sensory strip is apart of the brain located in the parietal lobe,
near the border of the frontal lobe. The sensory strip is involved in registering
sensation that are connected specific body parts or body functions. It is the band
of neurons that are embedded in your cerebrum or cerebral cortex. Parietal lobe.
Motor Strip: Motor strips, which are located in the frontal lobe; what control all
muscle movement including the ones that are necessary for speech. Some parts
of the body are more dexterous than others (talking fast/ lots of cells)
Acalculia: an acquired impairment in which patients have difficulty performing
simple mathematical tasks, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying and even
simply stating which of two numbers is larger. Acalculia is distinguished from
dyscalculia in that acalculia is acquired late in life due to neurological injury such
as stroke, while dyscalculia is a specific developmental disorder first observed
during the acquisition of mathematical knowledge. Left hemispheric stroke takes
out the angular gyrus.
Meningitis: Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membranes that
surround the brain. There are three meninges, including the following:
dura mater - the outside membrane that adheres to the inside of
arachnoid - the middle membrane.
pia mater - the innermost membrane, which adheres to the
Dementia Pugilistica: a neurodegenerative disease or dementia that may affect
amateur or professional boxers as well as athletes in other sports who suffer
concussions. The condition is caused by repeated concussive and sub-
concussive blows (blows that are below the threshold of force necessary to
cause concussion), or both. Brain damage to the cortex through constant
bounding. General Paresis: A brain disease occurring as a late consequence of syphilis,
characterized by dementia, progressive muscular weakness, and paralysis.
Degenerative changes are associated primarily with the frontal and temporal
lobar cortex. Like syphilis itself, general paralysis is also treated with penicillin.
Dementia caused by advanced syphilis.
Tabes Dorsalis: From advanced syphilis and causes you to not walk well by
affecting spinal cord (feet fit together); Tabes dorsalis is a slow degeneration of
the nerve cells and nerve fibers that carry sensory information to the brain. The
degenerating nerves are in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (the portion
closest to the back of the body) and carry information that help maintain a
person's sense of position. Tabes dorsalis is the result of an untreated syphilis
infection. Symptoms may not appear for some decades after the i