Study Guides (248,150)
United States (123,290)
Psychology (242)
PSYCH 3313 (12)
All (6)

Review Notes for Exam 2

5 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYCH 3313
All Professors

Review Sheet – Psych 3313 – Exam 2 – Torello – Fall, 2013 Read Chapter 10.1, 10.2, 10.5 bold-faced terms. VISION Optic nerve/tract- nerve in PNS; tract goes to LGN of thalamus LGN (thalamus)- layers “What” and “Where” systems What: ventral; posterior temporal lobe Where: dorsal; parietal and occipital Primary visual cortex (striate)- receives info/ input from the LGN Akinetopsia- inability to perceive movement Charles Bonnet Syndrome- visual system is disturbed; damage results in visual hallucinations (often grotesque) Capgras Syndrome- lesion in fusiform gyrus interferes with pathway from limbic system you can recognize the face but feel nothing emotionally Prosopagnosia- lesion in fusiform gyrus where you can’t recognize faces Blindsight- being able to see but you are not conscious you can see; occipital lobe Dogs can see greens and blues – we can see RGB (we are trichromatic) Fovea- part of retina directly behind pupil where cones are highest located Cones- color; good lighting Rods- more; no color; more sensitive; low light Principles of Sensory Organization- hieratically organized; functionally segregated; parallel processing Artificial Vision- requires neurosurgery and implant over the occipital lobe; something is wrong with front end of visual system AUDITIONAND PAIN Ossicles- three bones in the middle ear; amplifies sound; connected by cartilage Ear Wax 20-20,000 Hz- normal range of human hearing Cochlea- coil that contains the organ of corti Hair cells- stimulate auditory nerve; receptors of auditory system Oval window- membrane, ossicles bang against cochlea Auditory nerve and tract- sound enters meiadus, ossicles, oval window, hair cells, MGN, primaryAuditory cortex MGN (thalamus)- receives from inferior colliculi and sends to primary auditory cortex PrimaryAuditory Cortex- receives input from the MGN; tonotopically organized Tonotopic Organization- PAC; the way cells are organized; responds to certain notes Amusia- tone deaf HearingAid- cartilage in middle ear is stiff and needs help amplifying Cochlear Implant- loss of hair cells Free nerve endings Nociceptors- free nerve ending responds to tissue damage Sensory Strip- primary somatosensory cortex; anterior parietal lobe Anterior Cingulate (gyrus)- cortex that is folded between two hempisphers; anterior part associated to the emotional response to pain P.A.G.- releases endorphins that lead to a reduction in pain Phantom Limb Reynolds – surgery on rats with P.A.G. stimulation only P.A.G. to Raphe excites inhibitory neurons in spinal cord, which inhibit afferent signal from tissue damage. SENSORIMOTOR SYSTEM Three Principles- hieratically organized; motor output is guided by sensory input; learning is guided by the nature in locus of motor control (once you understand something you recall it differently than when first learned) P.P.A.C. – inputs and outputs- posterior parietal association cortex An area of the association cortex that receives input from the visual, auditory and somatosensory systems and is involved in the perception of spatial location and guidance of voluntary behaviors Contralateral Sensory Neglect- suffer from right posterior parietal damage; ignoring left side Apraxia- damage to the left posterior parietal cortex; bilateral: you cannot respond to a request to more even though you can do the movement you cannot understand the request Primary Motor Cortex- hierarchically; motor output is guided by sensory input; learning is guided by the nature in locus of motor control (once you understand something you process it differently); lips, tongue, thump, finger The cortex of the precentral gyrus, which is the major point of departure for motor signals descending from the cerebral cortex into lower levels of the sensorimotor system Cerebellum- motor movements and emotional behaviors; modulation Basal Ganglia- smooth out the motor neurons DEVELOPMENT Neural Plate – cells that begin proliferation and develop into groove – Groove – Tube then brain eventually develops from the tube that pinches off Proliferation – creating more cells Migration- connecting cells to new parts Aggregation- more connections within a part Pioneer Growth Cones- part of the neurons that is first to migrate to its target location; axons proliferate then connect via axonal growth (tipped by pioneer growth cone) William’s Disease- chromosal 7 abnormality; look like aliens Microcephaly-Small brain; skull abnormality Anencephaly- just a brain stem; the rest is CSF Hydocephaly- brain doesn’t have drainage foramen for CSF; head gets bigger and bigger as brain continues to make CSF BRAIN DAMAGE Anosognosia- neurological deficit: results from a head injury and you are unaware that you are different Brain Tumor Types Strokes –interruption of blood to brain Strokes:Aneurysm (rupture of blood) , Thrombus (growth), Embolus(growth breaks off wall and floats around),Arteriosclerosis (blockage of arteries) Glutamate- released in brain when no blood goes to them; binds to receptors; leads to more calcium and sodium entering cell; leads to cells death (NDMAreceptor – Na, Ca – death) Closed Head Injury - Contusion (bleeding from hitting head), Concussion (unconscious) Post head injury- doesn’t hurt brain Dementia Pugilistica- boxers continuously hit Meningitis and Rabies- bacterial and viral infections Seizure Types Partial Seizures: only affect motor strip (jacksonian march); Complex partial seizure (involves the temporal lobe- transcendent feelings during seizures) Aura- a sensory event that precedes seizures; smelling something before a seizure occurs Huntington’s Disease- genetic disorder involving the production of huntingin protein that is contracted in 40s and death occurs 15 years later; dementia and movement Innerictom (temporal lobe epilepsy)? – people get super religious; read into everything Hitting head against front wall (coup) and bouncing back to hit head on back (countercoup) Tartive disconesia- early antipsychotic drugs caused this Book: Tumor (neoplasm= new growth): a mass of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body; a cancer Meningiomas (20%): tumors that grow between the meninges (membranes that cover the CNS); all meningiomas are encapsulated tumors Encapsulated tumors: tumors that grow within their own membrane; easy to identify; almost always benign (just cause pre
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 3313

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.