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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 4555
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All Professors
Semester
Winter

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PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Three stages of romantic attraction Lust Sexual desire Driven by sex hormones testosterone and estrogen Outcome – reproduction Attraction Romantic Passion Idealize the one we “love” Obsessive thoughts Driven by: Neurotransmitters – dopamine and serotonin Attachment Passion cools Commitment (feels right) Driven by: hormone – oxytocin Allows for parent-infant bonding Raging Hormones Adolescents rarely get beyond Stage 1 or, sometimes, stage 2 Are adolescents the victims of the hormonal changes that take place during puberty? What effects do pubertal hormone have on adolescent sexuality? Endocrinology of Puberty Endocrine system System of glands that produce hormones that regulate the body Important sexual development during puberty Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis Direct effects Model Hormonesbrainbehavior Udry (1995) Production of T during the fetal period masculinizes the male brain T produced during puberty acts on these neutral structures and affects sexuality Female sexual behavior was related to fetal exposure to T and adolescent T In utero, hormones influence the organization of our brain During puberty, hormones activate brain structures that are already present Halpern (1998) Relationship between T and sexuality in boys Followed a group of 12-13 boys for 3 years Measure T and sexual intercourse Risk of having sex More T  More likely to have sexual behavior Udry (1986) Tested 3 models of hormones effects on adolescent sexuality Strong biological model Hormones have direct effect on sexual behavior Weak biological model Hormones affect pubertal development which is the cause of sexual behavior Biosocial model PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Hormones effect sexual behavior and pubertal development which is the cause of sexual behavior Udry (1985, 1986) Studied relationship between T and Frequency of thinking about sex Desire to have sex Masturbation Sexual intercourse In boys and girls, grade 8-10 Males T affected all four measures of sexuality Pubertal development was not a significant predictor of any measure of sexuality The Strong biological model was the best fit for males Females: T affected: thinking about sex desire to have sex Masturbation was affected by T and puberty The Biosocial model if the best fit for females Why? Biological explanation Males have 10-20 times as much T as females T may have a more potent effect on males than on females Biosocial explanation Social forces exert a greater influence on female sexual behavior than on male sexuality Attendance at religious services Lowered female sexuality No effect on male sexuality Durante (2010) Does estrogen effect female sexuality? Relationship between estrogen and dress Compared the clothing choices of women who were either ovulating or not Ovulatory shift hypothesis Women at peak fertility should show more interest in mating and selecting a mate Hypothesis: During ovulation women should choose clothes that are sexier than when they are not ovulating These choices are unconscious Results Women who were ovulating chose sexier clothes than women who were not ovulating (hypothesis confirmed) Why? Indirect effects model Pubertal hormones  Secondary sexual characteristic Influences of older peerssexual behavior Early maturing boys in comparison to late maturing boys: Early maturation Popular with boys and girls Early dating Early sexual behavior Illegal and risky behaviors PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Early maturing girls in comparison to late maturing girls: Early maturation Popular with boys Less popular with girls Early dating Early sexual activity Reasons? Early maturation leads to increased sexual desire Seek out sexual partners Ostovich (2005) Found that early maturing males in contrast to late maturing Earlier sexual arousal Stronger sex drive More sexual partners More casual sex There was no relationship between onset of puberty and sexuality in females Why? Early maturing adolescents are attracted to and drawn into peer groups with: Older peers Older male peers More sexually experienced peers Early maturing girls are not prepared for the attention they receive from older boys Herrman (2007) Examined repeat pregnancies during adolescence Some adolescents, some of the time, make rational decisions about having sex But for most adolescents, most of the time, sex is spontaneous and unplanned Why? According to Steinberg (2002) teens engage in risky behavior not because of poor decision-making, but because of a lack of any decision-making One explanation is that teens have poor impulse control Once their emotions get revved up, teens have a difficult time controlling themselves Neurological SEX AT AN EARLY AGE Some facts about early sexual intercourse 2 million children under the age od 13 years have had sexual intercourse Between 10%-20% of girls who had sexual intercourse before 13 years, it was not voluntary Marin (2000) Relationship between have and older boy/girl friends and sex at an early age Two risk factors: Older partner may already be sexually experienced and may expect sex Young youth may find it difficult to refuse sexual advances because of their social immaturity Studied over 2,000 California sixth graders (10-11) Percentage of sixth grades with boy/girlfriends who have had sexual intercourse Males – The older your girlfriend compared to you the more likely to have sex PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Females – Gradual increase with difference in age increase. LARGE increase from 3-4 to 5+ (~40%) Profile of youth with older partners Early pubertal development Not doing well in school Have many older friends Why date someone older? Higher social status Older may seek younger adolescents because of vulnerability Younger girls are when they first have intercourse Less likely to graduate from high school More lifetime sex partners More likely to: Get and STD Get pregnant Have an abortion Become a single mother Get a divorce, if they marry Younger boys are when they first have intercourse More likely to: Drink alcohol Use drugs Become delinquent Drop out of school What does this add up to? Heritage Foundation “Beginning sexual activity at an early age in likely to have permanent negative consequences on the lives of the young” Is this conclusion warranted? French & Dishon (2003) What predicts early sexual intercourse? What is the relationship between early sexual intercourse and later drug use, alcohol use, and delinquency? Two pathways: Deviant Childhood Externalizing Behavior (acting out) + Early puberty and low parent monitoring  Association with deviant peers Leads to: Early sexual intercourse Drugs, Alcohol, and Delinquency Non-Deviant Early puberty and low parent monitoring  Early sexual intercourse Both pathways originate in childhood Problem Behavior Theory Early sexual activity occurs with alcohol and drug use Madkour (2010) Examined age of sexual initiation and problem behavior in five countries US, Scotland, Finland, France, Poland Percent of youth under age 15 who were non-virgins varied Lowest: Poland and Finland Highest: Scotland PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE In all 5 countries early sexual intercourse was correlated with: Drug use Alcohol use Cigarette smoking Poor school grades Perhaps reflects shared values among countries about inappropriate early sexual activity Santelli (2001) Found several mechanism that account for the association between substance use and sex Drugs and alcohol disinhibit sexual behavior Risk takers Social modeling through peer influence L’Engle (2006) Investigate “cognitive susceptibility” to sexual intercourse th th Studied virgin 7 and 8 grades 2 years later Desire to have sex Ready to have sex 10% of non-susceptible adolescents had sex 43% of susceptible adolescents had sex Result suggest that adolescents who have had sex at an early age are ready to have sex Early sex in not an impulsive act One must be ready to have sex Bingham & Crockett (1996) Adjustment of boys and girls who have early, middle, or late intercourse Relationship between timing of sexual intercourse and later psychosocial development Double standard hypothesis Girls – more negative effects Boys – more positive effects Looked at kids between 9-12 grade Students were assigned to one of three sexual timing groups based on the median age of first intercourse (boys = 14.8; girls = 15.5) Early – Below median age (40%) Poorer psychosocial adjustment in comparison to those in the middle and late groups More: Delinquency Drinking Drug use Lower Marks in School Poorer family relations Middle – At or above median age (38%) Late – Virgins at beginning of the 12 grade (22%) Differences in psychosocial adjustment among the three groups were present BEFORE the initiation of sexual intercourse Perhaps due to temperament or family problems Timing of first sexual intercourse we NOT THE CAUSE of later psychosocial adjustment problems Was there a double standard? The relationship between early sexual intercourse and later psychosocial adjustment was similar for girls and boys Self esteem of boys and girls was unaffected by timing of first sexual intercourse Boys had higher self esteem than girls before and after first sexual intercourse Overall Conclusions PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Problem behavior is common among teems who have sexual intercourse at an early age Problem behavior is not a result of early sexual intercourse It is a continuation of long-term patterns of poor psychosocial adjustment established in childhood DATA MEASUREMENTS Are we studying what we think we are studying? Reliability Does the test yield the same result on repeated trials? Are the responses of adolescents reliable? Test-retest reliability is about r=.8 for virginity status and number of partners No gender differences Validity Does the test measure what it is intended to measure? What is the validity of adolescent reports of sexual behavior? Based on self reports No objective markers to validate self-reported sexual behavior Gender-Related Systematic Error Males often report more sexual behavior, earlier first sexual experience, and more partners than females Do men brag (over-report)? Do women hide (under-report)? How many people have I had sex with? Brown and Sinclair (1999) Figure out number of sexual partners Enumerate/Count (often underestimate) Tally/Just Know Rough Estimate (often overestimate) Alexander and Fisher (2003) Do men and women lie about their sexual behavior? Questionnaires Answered in one of two conditions Anonymous Bogus pipeline (hooked to polygraph) Males tell the truth Females lie under GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR Some Gender Differences: Boys are more likely to participle in sex play than girls Males report being sexually aroused at an early age than females More males than females report they have masturbated Males report that they start to have sex at a younger age then females Males have more sexual partners than females Males think about sex more than females do Desire for sex: PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Males desire sex in a relationship more often than females Males are ready for sex earlier in a relationship than females Expectations for sex: Cohen & Shotland (1996) Study of college students’ expectations about when sex should occur Males: 4 dates Females: 6 dates Males expect sex earlier than females Willingness to have sex with someone you are attracted to but not emotionally close Males: 90% Females: 60% Why? Nature – Biology Nurture – Environment Love in the Afternoon Clark & Hatfield (1989) How willing are men and women to have sex with a willing man or women? Would you go out with me tonight? Male – 50% Female – 56% Would you come over to my apartment tonight? Males – 69% Females – 6% Would you go to bed with me tonight? Males – 75% Females – 0% Why? Men more willing for sex Women more willing to go out on a date Men were enthusiastic about having sex and apologetic about turning the offer down Women were more concerned about their physical safety PARENT-TEEN COMMUNICATION ABOUT SEX Where do teens learn about sex? Sprecher Ranking of where the information comes from: Same sex friends Dating partners Media Opposite-sex friends Reading Mothers Teachers Sex Education Siblings Fathers PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Physicians Religious Leaders Learn about sex from friends; Parents are not favorable sources of information Good News Parents are the greatest influence on their sexual behavior Are they talking? 70% of parents say they have talked to their adolescent about sex 50% of adolescents report having the sex talk Both parents and teens report having one big talk Why don’t parents and teens talk about sex? Jaccard African American teens and mothers Mothers’ reasons: Might embarrass the teen Teen might ask a question the mother cant answer Teens’ reasons: Teen might be embarrassed Might ask personal questions Other reasons: Mother underestimate teen sexual activity Who talks about sex? Mothers more than fathers With both sons and daughters Why? Mothers are better communicators Mothers talk to children about personal issues Fathers are more uncomfortable The pattern of mother-adolescent conversations about sex Lefkowitz Observed 31 mothers and teens talk about: Everyday issues Dating and sex Results: Mothers did most of the talking about dating and sex (2:1) Especially with sons and younger adolescents Mothers took on a teaching role when they talked about dating and sex Mothers and teens talked more about everyday issues than about sex Embarrassed Teens were more embarrassed than mothers were What do mothers and teens talk about? Jaccard Found that most common topics talked about were: Getting AIDS/STD Pregnancy Having sex would upset mother (guilt) Reasons why teens would regret having sex before marriage Some topics that were not discussed: Nocturnal emissions PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Masturbation Sexual orientation Maternal messages about sex Romo Looked at what Latino mothers said to their teens (female) about sex: Mothers beliefs and values Advice to adolescent Results: Less likely to have sex 1 year later when mothers emphasized their beliefs and values Especially, the dangers of having sex Abstinent messages worked for virgins and non-virgins What is said by the mothers matters! Dittus & Jaccard One year longitudinal study of mothers and teens in grades 7-11 Results: Just talking about sex was NOT related to teen sexuality Teen perception of mother disapproval of premarital sex was BEST predictor of: Later onset of intercourse Lower frequency of intercourse Greater consistency of birth control use Mothers with permissive attitudes about premarital sexuality had teens who were more sexually active one year later GENERALIZATIONS Teens are more likely to remain abstinent for a longer period of time if parents tell their adolescents they do not approve of sexual activity Especially if the relationship is worm and caring Teens are more likely to be sexually active if parents communicate permission or do not communicate disapproval Model Close mother adolescent relationshipMother disapproves of sexual behaviorexpresses disapprovalLess teen sexual behavior Parental Communication About Sex Aspy Examined parental communication about sex and youth sexual behavior Results More likely to have had sex if parents talked about birth control and STD prevention Youth were less likely to have sex: Were taught to say no Were taught to delay sexual activity Clawson & Reese-Weber One reason why discussions about birth control might be related to sexual activity Results: Parents who talked to their teens about sex and birth control BEFORE the teens were sexually active had teens who were older when they had sex Discussions after teen sex were related to younger age of first sex Can talking lessen peer influence? Whitaker & Miller Examined parent-teen talk about sex, peer norms, and sexual behavior among African American and Hispanic teens Results from peer norms: Sex at an early age Not talking (12.7) Talking (13.7) Talking matters PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Sex at an older age Not Talking (14.3) Talking (14.8) Talking has slight effect Norms matter more Why does parent-teen talk about sex reduce peer influence? Reinforce parental values Buffer teens from peer pressure Parent-teen talk may be related to closeness and monitoring In Conclusion… Peers have a greater effect on adolescent sexuality that parent communication Parent-teen sexual communication can reduce the impact of peers on teens’ sexual behavior PEER PRESSURE AND TEEN SEX Percent of 15-17 year olds who reported they experienced “some” or “a lot” of pressure to have sex Girls from boys – 89% Girls from girls – 53% Boys from boys – 67% Boys from girls – 49% Results: Most pressure from male; Not exclusive What is peer pressure? Two types: Active peer pressure: Direct pressure by peers to behave, think, or feel in a certain way Passive peer pressure Conformity to a group norm To act in accordance with group standard Romer (1994) More and more adolescents become sexually active as they get older Why age change? Studied African-American youth and found that between 9-15 years the percentage of adolescents who became sexually active went from: Boys – 25% to 100% Girls – 3% to 83% Results: The sexual behavior of adolescents was related to the sexual behavior of peers Sexual behavior was more strongly related to perceptions of the sexual behavior of peers Perceptions increased faster than actual behaviors One implication for prevention is to teach the facts about adolescent sexual behavior Bearman & Brucker (1999) False consensus: Youth who believe that most of their peers have been sexually active: More likely to be sexually active Start having sex at an earlier age Hyde (2008) PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Interpersonal coercion – direct attempt by one individual to influence another individual (active pressure) Social coercion – Social pressure to adhere to a norm (passive pressure) Studied Irish adolescents Females experienced more pressure than males 31% - 8% Both sexes experienced social coercion, but only females reported interpersonal coercion Females reported that males used verbal and physical pressure Males reported wanting to feel normal, fit in with friends, not to be teased Wright (2000) Studied pressure to have sex and regret among a sample of Scottish teens Who felt pressure? Girls – 28% Boys – 23% Minority feel pressure Who felt regret? Girls – 84% Boys – 67% Of those pressured, majority felt regret Bersamin (2006) The effect of parents and peers on oral sex and intercourse Examined several possible predictors of oral sex and intercourse amount high school students Alcohol Use Perceive sexual behavior of peers Parent-teen communication about sex How similar are the predictors of oral sex and intercourse? Result: Predictors of oral sex: Heavy drinking *Perceived high peer oral sex *Perceived high peer approval of oral sex Predictors of intercourse: Heavy drinking *Perceived high peer intercourse *Perceived high peer approval of intercourse Parental communication about sexuality Prinstein (2003) Sex, peers, and popularity Intercourse, oral sex and peer relations among 10 graders Measured Perception of best friend’s sexual behavior Popularity Likability 40% of boys and girls reported oral sex 30% in intercourse Results: Perceptions of friends oral sec behavior was more strongly related to adolescents’ oral sex behavior than perceptions of friends’ intercourse was related o adolescent intercourse Sexually active adolescents were more popular but not more likeable Teens with many sex partners was less popular than teens with few partners PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Oral sex: As the number of oral sex partners increased, popularity decreased Conclusions: Oral sex is highly controlled by peer norms and perceptions of peer behavior Some experience with oral sex is good, but too many partners damages your reputation 3 models of peer relations Peer Socialization Peers  Adolescent Peer Selection Adolescent  Peers Peer Similarity Unknown Variable  Peers & Unknown Variable  Adolescent Henry (2007) Relationship between peers attitudes and behavior on adolescents risky sexual behavior Is it peer socialization or peer selection? Longitudinal study or 15-18 year olds Results: Peer socialization The attitudes and behavior of friends about sex without a condom predicted adolescents’’ attitudes and behaviors Peer selection The attitudes of adolescents about sex without a condom predicted friends’ attitudes The relationship between friends’ sexual attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behavior was BIDIRECTIONAL Peer socialization and peer selection were present Why? Perhaps adolescents initially choose teens who are like themselves as friends With time, what friends do has an influence on adolescents Gender Differences Females were more influences by the attitudes of their friends than were males Females are more socially interdependent Males are more independent Crockett (2006) Relationship between risk proneness, and self-regulation and risky sexual behavior Risk Proneness Attraction to excitement Poor decision making Self-regulation Ability to regulate emotions and behavior Results: Conclusions: Risky sexual behavior in adolescence in an outcome of a sequence of events that begins in childhood Rogers & Rowe (1993) EMOSA (epidemic Modeling of the Onset of Sexual Activity) PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Adapted a model of disease contagion to the study of sexual behavior Proposed an epidemiological model to examine the spread of sexuality Social contagion Sexual behavior can be “caught” Sexuality passes from the person who has performed it to a person who has not Catching Sex The likely hood that a non-infected teen will catch sex depends on 3 factors: The number of infected teens (How many teens have had sexual intercourse) How contagious sex is (How attracted to sexual intercourse is to a teen?) The immunity of the exposed teen to the sexual virus (How likely is it that a teen will become sexually active?) Results: Initially, the spread of sexuality is slow As more people become sexually active, it becomes more contagious and spreads more rapidly Exponential Growth TEEN ROMANCE Teen Romance Adolescent dating and romance have been declared dead by the media Replaces by hookups and “friends with benefits” Teen romance has been trivialized Most research has been on Dating violence Negative effects on girls Characteristics of Adolescent Romantic Relationships Carver (2003) Studied 12,000 high school students in 80 U.S. high schools 25% of 12-year-olds and 70% of 18-yea-olds were in a “special romantic relationship” during the past 18 months No gender differences Median length of relationship was 14 moths About 2% of boys and 4% of girls reported a same sex romantic relationship More sexual intercourse with age Sexual intercourse more likely within a romantic relationship Abuse in romantic relationships Most students did not report any form of abuse Most common forms of abuse Swore at you (19%) Insulted you in from of others (13%) Least common forms of abuse Pushed of shoved (8%) Threatened you with violence (3%) Threw something at you (3%) No differences between boys and girls The romantic lives of sexual minority youth 3 generalizations: For many sexual minority youth romantic and sexual interests go unexpressed Most sexual minority youth contend with mixed patterns of attraction for same-sex and opposite-sex partners Sexual and emotional attraction can be discordant Gender and Communication PSYCHOLOGY 4555 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Giordano (2001) Studied high school yearbook messages written by males and females Results: Boys messages to boys focused on behavior were often sarcastic “You’re a lousy wrestler” Boys messages to girls were more emotionally expressive “You are beautiful in so many ways” Girls were more likely to express positive emotion in messages to both boys and girls Why are boys more awkward than girls in romantic relationships? Friendships and romantic relationships are more similar for girls than for boys Girls self-disclose and are intimate with female friends and with romantic partners Boys self-disclose and are intimate mainly with girls Girls only have to learn one relationship language, boys two The secret love lives of teens Giordano (2006) Studied the effect of gender on high school romantic feelings? Is it true that boys have more power than girls in a romantic relationship? Is it true that girls have stronger romantic feelings than boys do? Results: Boys and girls thought that girls had more interpersonal power in romantic relationships Girls made more decisions about the relationship that did boys No gender difference in the strength of feelings about love The relationship mattered as much to boys as to girls Conclusions Findings about feelings differ
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