[SOCIOL 4511] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 45 pages long Study Guide!

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SOCIOL 4511
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Soc 4511
1
Childhood and Delinquency
January 12 & January 17
I. Information Used to Determine Which Court
A. Age young child vs. older adolescent?
B. Intentions intend harm?
C. Responsibility did they understand what they were doing?
D. Harm inflicted?
E. Potential for rehabilitation?
1. Want them to no longer pose a risk to society
F. Other information
G. What’s most important? – argue age is key
II. Background on Adolescence
A. Minors make up more than 25% of our population (USA)
B. Adolescence today is much different than it was even 40 years ago
1. Exposure to violence and sexually explicit material (technology)
2. Access to wider audience at all times
3. Cyberbullying
4. Divorce and single-parent families
5. Working parents
6. Earlier timing of puberty
C. Adolescence is one of the most difficult stages of the life course
1. Mental illness reaches height
2. Risky behavior peaks
3. Stress is highest
4. Why?
a. Many changes/transitions
i. Puberty; new schools; desire for autonomy; media pressure;
peer pressure/acceptance; school pressure; romantic/sexual
relationships
III. Adolescent Dilemma
A. The teenage years are a time of conflict with authority and a desire for autonomy
B. Erik Erikson struggle between two things
1. Ego identity = formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are
and what they stand for
2. Role diffusion = occurs when youths experience uncertainty of identity
a. Can occur when they must switch between different ways of
presenting themselves
IV. Adolescence is the Riskiest Period of the Life Course
A. All adolescents are at heightened risks of some problems
1. Examples: STDs, motor vehicle accidents, homicide, suicide, accidental
death = peak ages 15 18
2. About 75% of teeth deaths are due to preventable causes
B. Alcohol is linked to adolescent mortality
C. Approximately 25% of youth population are at elevated risk (even higher than the
average adolescent) of especially problematic outcomes
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Soc 4511
2
1. At-risk youth = kids most vulnerable to the negative consequences of
school failure, substance abuse and early sexuality
a. Higher chance of getting caught in the justice system
2. Some of the most serious problems facing youth revolve around 5 issues
a. Poverty (1 in 7)
b. Health problems (link between poverty and health)
c. Family problems (½ new marriages end in divorce)
i. Higher in second and third marriages
d. Substandard living conditions (housing issues)
e. Inadequate education (more than 10% of minority youth do not
graduate high school)
V. Reasons for Hope
A. Teenage birthrates declined
B. More vaccinations for disease
C. More adolescents are going to college
1. More women make up college population than men
D. Lower use of hard drugs
E. Lower levels of smoking
VI. Video Steinberg Ted Talk
A. Most desist from crime only 6% persist
B. Children should not be treated as mini adults b/c not as cognitively developed
C. Serotonin = highest spikes in adolescence (things feel better)
VII. Study of Juvenile Delinquency
A. Juvenile delinquency = participation in illegal behavior by a minor who falls
under a statutory age limit (17 and younger)
1. On average, 1.7 million youths are arrested each year
B. Chronic juvenile offenders = have been arrested four or more time
1. “Chronic 6%” still see age-crime curve but much more spread out
C. The juvenile justice system = segment of the justice system that includes…
1. Law enforcement officers
2. The courts
3. Correctional agencies, all designed to treat youthful offenders
D. Goal = treat and rehabilitate juvenile offenders
1. Cannot be given automatic life without parole (Supreme Court 2012)
E. Recent institution did not exist before the late 19th century
VIII. Development of Childhood
A. Treating children as distinct social group is a new idea
B. During middle ages, children treated as miniature adults
1. Had adult roles (wage providers), severe discipline, limited contact with
parents
2. Paternalistic family = father had complete control over household
C. Argued: parents not emotionally close to children
1. Traced to high mortality rates
2. As many as 2/3 children died before age 20
D. Throughout 17th and 18th century, developments in England resulted in
recognition of children’s rights
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